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    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. The Overland Experience, Part II TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. To all of you who wrote me about *my* upcoming trip to Oregon... I personally, am not moving. My accounts you are reading in this "The Overland Experience," are fictitious. I am not moving to Oregon, nor do I live in Missouri or Indiana. I simply chose the beginning and ending points of the Oregon trail to build a comparison story with. "The Overland Experience" is what could be entries from two women's diaries, both of whom are making the trip west to the same point from the same town in today's midwest. The difference is nearly 150 years. Please keep in mind as you read, the story itself is fiction but the historical events are fact. Notice what we expect (and take for granted) to be available to us today, and what she of almost 150 years ago barely had time to comment on or concern herself with. THE OVERLAND EXPERIENCE, Part II June 9, 2002 The hum of the engine, the gentle motion of the car as it moves over the road, and the air conditioner blowing cool air in my face ~ I'm so comfortable. If I weren't driving, I think I could just take a nap. Wearing only shorts, a tank top and sandals, I got a little cool from the air blowing on me, so I directed the air away. I noticed that my legs are getting a sunburn through the windshield from the strength of the sun's rays. I may be staying cool, but legs are definitely getting red. I'll put some aloe vera after-sun lotion on and that'll ease the redness and keep my skin moisturized. I don't like the tunes the radio stations I can get in are playing, so I just slid one of my favorite CDs into the player. Creedence (CCR) is certainly guaranteed to wake me up again! We've been driving just 6 hours now and have gone 407 miles. I need to stop for a while - get some gas and some lunch.... walk around a bit. My hubby is driving the large moving truck, while I'm following behind with our van; we keep in touch with walkie-talkies. The kids have been pretty good so far. They've watched TV most of the time, took naps, played Nintendo, watched a video tape, and are in decent spirits. They in their shorts, T-shirts and sneakers look very much the part of summer fashion. "Honey, stop at the next Burger King or McDonald's, okay? I need to make a pit-stop, and we can get lunch." "Okay, there's one coming up at the next exit. The truck needs gas, anyway," comes his reply. Creedence continues to belt out their song and I begin to sing, albeit very off-tune, as we continue down the highway. Life is good. :) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Friday, June 24, 1853 We started this morning at 6:00 A.M. from a place called Willow Creek.* We traveled a couple of miles and met nineteen ox teams, 73 days from Fort Laramie, loaded with buffalo robes and furs for the American Fur Company. We're seeing many articles strewed along the road, such as log chains, ox-yokes, horse-collars, cooking stoves, etc. which the emigrants have been compelled to throw away to lighten their wagons. [*fictitious name] We have been on the trail nearly a month now, 29 days to be exact. The trip is hard... so hard. We just had no idea. Several families have already turned around and gone back to Independence, but not before we began seeing graves long the trail. Before departing Independence, the scene of family farewells is forever fixed upon my mind. Tears and hugs were shed by fathers, mothers, sons, and daughters as they embraced each other for the last time on earth, and the parting kiss was given as the last token of love from hearts that knew the separation was forever. It was as solemn as a funeral. The final hour arrived. Word to depart was given and the train started on its six months of travel and toil. We camped only a few miles down the road, but the start had been made, and nearly all for the first time in our lives experienced the novelty of camping. Our wagon train started out with 40 wagons. Subtract those families who returned to Independence, we are now down to 37. It makes an impressive site to see us camped ~ the white covers of the wagons and new tents resemble a small village, especially when the campfires shed their fiery light on the surrounding darkness. The wagonmaster says we have gone just about 340 miles ~ that we should actually have been another sixty or so miles down the trail, but for heavy rains and swollen rivers. On three of those rainy and muddy days we barely traveled one mile! We made a two-day stop at Fort Kearney to rest and take on a few supplies. It was wonderful to sit in one place for a whole two days! What has the trip been like so far? Well, we have all had a lot of learning to do, that is a certainty! Our day starts with getting up very early each morning (about 4 a.m.) when its still dark to prepare for our daily travels. We have to start the fire, prepare breakfast, gather the livestock, reload the wagon, and hitch the oxen before getting started. On some days, if I have time, I will use this time to fix lunch as well. We start back down the trail at sunup, between 6:00 and 6:30 A.M. Though we are on the trail, my duties of childcare, cooking, homemaking, etc. are still required. However, they are now complicated by the awkwardness of life on the trail, caring for our sick and injured, coupled with the necessity of traveling every day. Two women have discovered they are pregnant; I am happy not to be one of them, but I fear it will happen before we arrive in Oregon. Have I told you about our family yet? We have two boys and three girls, ages 9, 7, 5, 3, and 1. The baby rides in the wagon or I carry him. Our 3 year old can only walk for a short while, then she goes in the wagon, too. Our older three walk with us. The 5-year old has stopped talking, she's so tired. We stopped for two days at Fort Kearney and that helped everyone regain some strength and restore energy. Great thunderstorms have taken their toll of all of us. Two of our party (not of my family, fortunately) were killed by lightning strikes a week ago and one other was injured by hail the size of walnuts. I am happy to say she is recovering. Those pounding rains were especially difficult for us because there was no shelter on the plains and our wagons began leaking. Aside from the mud, we have encountered roads of heavy dust and rocks. Our wagon party has already begun to leave a small trail of broken wheels and tire hubs. There are parts of the road so rough that several woman filled their butter churns with fresh milk many mornings. As we travel during the day, the wagon bounces around enough to churn a small lump of butter for their evening meal. A couple of them have shared with us for our own evening repast. What a treat! I think we shall purchase a churn when we get to Fort Laramie. Perhaps our sheep's milk will produce a likeable butter. Good news! All four water kegs are full after making a stop last night near the river. We are finding that a very effectual preventive to thirst is by drinking a large quantity of water before breakfast, and, on feeling thirsty during the march, chewing a small green twig or leaf. The animals are well hydrated, though the oxen, are hot and lather occasionally from their toils. They are tired, as we all are. The wagonmaster has once again told us we need to unload the piano and grandfather clock. Once again, I refused his demands. I just can't begin to consider leaving my priceless heirlooms behind, knowing I will never see my family again. We have begun to make plans on how we will build our new home in Oregon. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ It's nice to get out and walk around, but without air conditioning the summer sun seems blistering hot. Heat is radiating up off the ground and my skin feels like it's trying to bake. We all head for the comfort of the fast-food restaurant. Inside, we go to the back of the building to make nature calls and freshen up a little. Once we all return to the main area of the eatery, we order our lunches ~ complete with icy sodas. It's a relaxing meal with conversation centered around the roads, the traffic, and the heat. Hubby is having no problems handling the large truck, and one of the kids has decided to ride with him this afternoon. We've decided that since it's so hot, we'd quit early today ~ about 4 p.m. and find a motel with a swimming pool. A leisurely swim, a nice dinner, some TV in our room ~ a nice way to end a day of travel. I think I'll also call our families, let them know where we are, and that we love them. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The constant heat drains us of energy horribly. We wear the least amount of clothing that is proper, still we are very hot. Cotton or linen fabrics do not sufficiently protect our bodies against the direct rays of the sun at midday, nor against rains or sudden changes of temperature. Our simple clothes therefore, are of wool. Men wear trousers held by leather suspenders and tucked into their boots. In these warmer temperatures, shirts of red or blue flannel serve as jackets in the early morn, however they also have heavy wool coats to use when we get into the mountains. The men wear wide-brimmed felt hats to protect their heads and faces from the elements. We women wear flannel cotton or calico dresses, a day cap to keep our hair clean from the trail's dust, and a bonnet or hat. Our dresses are hemmed to the ankle so it does not interfere with rough travel. A raised hem definitely isn't fashionable, but while on the trail, it is most efficient. None of wear the requisite four to five petticoats, choosing instead to wear one or two only. Most of the ladies are wearing durable boots for all our walking. We use shawls on cool days and have heavy overcoats for the mountainous cold, if necessary. We all have fine clothing with us, but it is packed and will not be worn until we reach our destination. We are not at the head of the wagon train, so we have a lot of dust to contend with. I haven't had a bath for two weeks; I would love to soak in a tub of bubbles and wash my hair... I am itchy and I feel like I have vermin crawling around on me. I'm sure I am as aromatic as those we are traveling with. On the march my husband walks next to the wagon, just off to the rear of the oxen, holding the reins and keeping control of the animals. The children and I try to walk in the shade of our rolling home. Everyone is exhausted by the end of the day. We stop at lunchtime and rest for an hour, then travel some more until about 6:00 P.M. Our wagons are circled not so much for protection, but to corral the loose livestock. Immediately fires are started for the cooking of the evening meal while the men prepare the livestock for the night. Cooking bread over a campfire is something of a challenge and the result until recently, was usually burned on the outside and doughy on the inside. Even worse, keeping bugs and dirt out of the mix is nearly impossible. If we are lucky, we might have quail or buffalo with our bread. That has only happened twice while on the trail, though. Also, twice we had two small trout after camping near a brook. Our nightly fare continues to be bacon, day after day. Dry bread, bacon and coffee is our breakfast, dinner and supper. When we can obtain cooking fuel for a fire, the bacon is cooked; otherwise we eat it without cooking. Our eldest three children have plenty of chores that keep them as busy as my husband and I are. They milk the sheep, fetch water from a stream or river if we are near one, help me prepare meals, wash dishes, collect buffalo chips or wood for the fire, shake out dusty blankets and quilts, and hang beef jerky to dry in the sun. On collecting buffalo chips: after all of the settlers who passed along this route in the years ahead of us, there are no longer any trees or loose bits of wood. Our only recourse for fuel is the sole alternative ~ buffalo dung. No one likes collecting it, but it does burn and the flame is consistently odorless. Our friends back home would be amused to see everyone making a grand rush for the largest and driest chips! We have found that the chips burn well when dry, but if damp or wet they are smoky and almost fireproof. After supper we gather around the campfires and sing songs, dance, tell stories, and just visit with each other. By 9:00 P.M. everyone has bedded down for the night. Sometimes we sleep inside the wagon, especially if the weather is very bad; otherwise, we sleep under the wagon, in the tent, or under the stars. Pure exhaustion helps us get to sleep, but it isn't comfortable. At four A.M. the whole process starts again ~ an attempted fifteen miles a day, and we still have five more months to go... Next week: Trouble It's family ... and that's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    06/08/2002 07:50:19
    1. [ATEN] COLLEEN'S JUNE CHALLENGE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. Hi all, :) June is traditionally known as "Bride's Month." Your challenge is to find that list-name marriage that has eluded you so far and post it to the list. Those of you who are "lookup artists," you know what to do. Dust off those indexes. :) Colleen

    06/02/2002 07:41:23
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. The Overland Experience, part 1 TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I'm going to try something a little different this time. The subject of today's Coffee is so extensive and it's such an important one to nearly all of us, that I'm only "serving" part of it today, with two or three more installments to follow. The "Experience" is fictitious, but the events are not. THE OVERLAND EXPERIENCE, Part I Warm weather is here (duh!) and we're a month behind for a (fictional) permanent move we're about to from ohhhh..... St. Louis, Missouri to Portland, Oregon (just because it's easier) ~ a distance of 2,044 miles. Now, when we move, plans had to be made; I mean, no family can just up and move unless they're always prepared for it. As a military wife, I've had *many* years of moving, so I'll be using my own experiences for us to make this trip. If you've ever moved, I'm sure you'll do a lot of relating.... June 2, 2002 We've known for two months that we're moving in June. In April we began going through our home, sorting through dressers, cabinets, closets, kitchen drawers to get rid of stuff we no longer use or want. This is an attempt to "dump weight." We could have arranged for a packing company to come to our home, pack our belongings, and move them to Oregon, but we've elected to make this move ourselves. :) The last time we moved, it was with an estimated 17,000 pounds. We've already arranged for a large rental-truck truck (air-conditioned, of course) and plunked down a credit card to reserve it. We've also begun packing boxes and breaking down the larger pieces of furniture (like our entertainment unit). It won't be too bad.... We've surfed the Web, went to MapFind (again, fictitious) and gotten a map showing our route. We'll be going through Topeka, KS; Cheyenne, WY; Salt Lake City, UT; Boise, ID; then on in to Portland. Estimated driving time is 34 hours, 38 minutes on the major highways of I-70, I-71, I-80, and coming in on I-84. (A thought): Using all those super-highways driving will be a breeze, but we'll probably run into construction and (ugh!) traffic jams. I hope there won't be too many; people get so cranky in them, and it seems that every time we're in one, one of us inevitably needs to make a pit-stop. The kids get squirmy and begin fighting; even the games and toys we brought along don't seem to settle them down. Fortunately, for us, I'll follow behind my husband in our conversion van, and the kids can watch TV, video tapes, or play Nintendo games. Maybe I can also bring some soft drinks and snacks stored in the van's refrigerator. That should help, too. We've already gone back to see both our families and will call them the day we begin our trip. And, yesterday I called ahead to our realtor to make sure s/he's ready for us to look at homes next week. Our single suitcase is nearly packed. Since the very most it will take us to get there is four days, even with stops, we just need the one. Staying in hotels and eating in restaurants is sure going to be a treat for me ~ like a vacation! I know several of the hotels we'll be staying at will have swimming pools. It'll be a relaxing end to a weary day once we stop for the night. I guess we're all set! We leave in two days! :) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Westward movement in the United States has been a continual and progressive one. By the 1760s, settlers had moved into the Appalachian Mountains from the far eastern lands. Nearly 30 years later, by 1783, settlement had reached as far as the Mississippi River. During the early 1800s, pioneers began claiming fertile areas of land beyond the Mississippi. In the 1840's, Americans believed that the western part of the continent should belong to the United States. One writer said it was the "Manifest Destiny", or fate, of the United States to take over all the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. By 1848 the United States had acquired official title to the contigous land stretching westward to the Pacific, south to the Rio Grande, and north to the 49th parallel. Americans had long since explored and settled in many of these areas, but legitimate possession created a driving force for development that began to crystallize as other events brought a greater influx of people to the West. The religious persecution of the Mormons had led them to begin their migration westward by this time. The discovery of gold would soon draw thousands more across the country. Beginning in 1843, wagon trains set out for Oregon each summer from settlements along the Missouri River. May 15, 1853 Nearly 7,500 people have moved to Oregon this year; we'll be part of them. We should have left with the wagon train in April; I hope we will make it before the snows set in. Our wagonmaster says we'll be okay if we get to Independence and leave there in the next week. It's supposed to take us about six months to get Oregon. We are to start out in Independence and go past Chimney rock, Nebraska. From there the trail crosses the southwest tip of Wyoming and into the southern part of Idaho. The trail ends up in the northwest corner of Oregon. My husband just showed me the following paper that he was given from the wagonmaster: GREETINGS TO THE SETTLERS Before we begin, permit me to offer you these Words of Friendly Caution! 1. Keep on the well-worn trails along the river. Don't try new "cut-offs" and "short cuts." 2. Don't hurry your stock. Take it slowly and you will get through before those who hurry up. 3. Don't load too heavy at the beginning. 4. Supply yourself with a fair stock of vegetables, dried fruits, acids, pickles, etc. and use freely on the road. Let each wagon be supplied with some good cathartic, tonic and heating medicines. 5. Don't carry loaded guns. You won't have time to hunt, and you needn't expect trouble from the Indians unless you go looking for it. 6. Be careful crossing rivers and streams. Many careless emigrants drown each season. 7. Drink water from flowing streams. That includes the Platte. The Platte water may be "too thick to chew and too thin to plow," but it is healthy. The mud can be settled out and the "wrigglers" removed by straining through a cloth. Do not drink from trailside wells. The are filled with disease! 8. Don't pass up the chance to camp where there is good feed and water, even though it is but the middle of the afternoon. 9. Be prepared to travel in a crowd. with dust, noise, confusion, and crowded campgrounds. 10. Watch the stock faithfully at night; and don't travel on the Sabbath! In conclusion, we would say to all who go West, especially to the young, YIELD NOT TO TEMPTATION. Carry your principles with you; leave not your character at home, nor your Bible. You will need them both and even grace from above to protect you." I'm very nervous and very excited about this move. I've never been away from home before; we were married in Indiana, our five children were born there, and both our families are there. But my husband feels we can make a better life for ourselves in Oregon, where the land is fertile and lumber to rebuild is plentiful. We've been away from our families for three weeks now; I miss them dreadfully and don't believe I'll ever see any of them again. We sold nearly everything we owned, including our farm, to raise the money for the wagon, supplies and animals to make this trip; we're nearly out of money again. We have just enough left to buy a parcel of land. Luckily, I was able to keep my piano and grandfather clock. From a list the wagonmaster gave us, we're now carrying the following provisions, enough for a party of seven: 1 wagon...........$ 90.00 4 oxen & 4 yokes... 400.00 TOOLS & EQUIPMENT..... 300 pounds 3 oxbows mallet screws, 3 dozen saw shingle nails, 2 lbs. axe hammer augers spade wrench draw knife pocket knife screwdriver ox shoes blacksmith tools spokes tar bucket tent wagon tongue rope chains, 2 FOOD flour, 1080 lbs........$ 20.00........1080 pounds rice, 75 lbs............ 3.75........ 75 pounds biscuit, 120 lbs........ 3.60........ 120 pounds bacon, 600 lbs.......... 30.00........ 600 pounds pickles, 30 gals........ 3.50........ 50 pounds coffee, 100 lbs......... 8.00........ 100 pounds tea, 5 lbs.............. 2.75........ 5 pounds sugar, 100 lbs.......... 10.00........ 100 pounds lard, 200 lbs........... 12.00........ 200 pounds beans, 200 lbs.......... 16.00........ 200 pounds dried fruit, 120 lbs.... 28.80........ 120 pounds salt, 40 lbs............ 1.60........ 40 pounds pepper, 8 lbs........... .32........ 8 pounds saleratus*, 10 lbs...... 1.00........ 10 pounds whiskey, 1 keg.......... 5.00........ 25 pounds *baking soda WEAPONS rifle or musket........$ 30.00........ 10 pounds pistols, 2.............. 30.00........ 10 pounds powder, 5 lbs........... 1.25........ 5 pounds lead, 30 lbs............ 1.60........ 15 pounds shot, 10 lbs............ 1.00........ 10 pounds HOUSEHOLD GOODS matches................$ 1.00........ 1 pound 4 fish hooks & line.... 1.00........ 1 pounds cooking & eating utensils, ...... 20.00........ 25 pounds candles & soap, 100 lbs from home.............. 100 pounds bedding, 60 lbs, from home...................... 60 pounds sewing kit & cloth, 10 lbs, from home...................... 10 pounds clothing, from home...................... 100 pounds washboard, from home...................... 3 pounds piano, from home....................... 300 pounds grandfather clock, from home..................... 225 pounds schoolbooks, bible, photographs, medicine......... 8 pounds We also have several head of cattle and sheep to supply milk. We'll be able to use them once our trip is over. Our bacon is stored in sacks, each containing 100 pounds. In case of high heat, it is recommended the sacks be placed in boxes surrounded by bran to prevent the fat from melting. The flour is in double canvas sacks, one hundred pounds per sack. I found out earlier today that prices in Independence are much higher because that will be our last contact with "civilization," and it will be our last chance to purchase goods. I'm sure there are places along the trail where we can buy more of what we may need; the prices will be extremely high, though. Our wagon, called a "Prairie Schooner," looks very full and very heavy. It really isn't a large wagon like the Conestoga, but it is supposed to travel the trail much better. Prairie Schooners are so called because people say they look like ships sailing slowly across the green prairie. It measures 4' wide and 12' long; with its tongue and neck yoke attached, its length doubles to about 23'. Hardwood bows hold up the heavy, brown bonnet, making the schooner about 10' tall. It has a wheelbase of over 5' wide. Yesterday my husband rubbed oil on the canvas to make it waterproof. The wagon weighs 1,300 pounds empty. The wagon box, or bed, is 2-1/2' deep. If necessary, with a bit of tar, we can easily render it watertight and float across slow-moving rivers. The side boards are beveled outwards to keep rain from coming in under the edges of the bonnet and also help keep out river water. A jockey box is attached to the side of our wagon. In it are extra iron bolts, linch pins, skeins, nails, hoop iron, a variety of tools, and a jack. Also on the sides of our wagon are the water barrels, a butter churn, our shovel and axe, the tar bucket, and a feed trough for the livestock. Inside the wagon are many hook that hang from the wooden bonnet hoops. >From them I am hanging weapons, clothes, milk cans, and anything else I can safely put on them. The wagonmaster has told me I have too much for our wagon! He says I should leave the piano and clock here, that I need to trim the wagon's load to 2,500 pounds. No, I don't think I will do that. These are the only treasures from Indiana that I have; I don't want to give them up. With the whole family walking, maybe once we get moving, the weight won't bother the oxen and there won't be any problems. Next week: On the trail after leaving Independence It's family ... and that's what we're all about. To those cousins with June birthdays, the family and I wish you a very happy and special day. You are loved!! I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    06/02/2002 01:06:18
    1. [ATEN] CHAT: FAMILY REUNION
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. Hi family, Are you all aware that a nationwide family reunion is being planned for all Aten's, Auten's and Eaton's? It's to be held 2-4 August in Somerset, New Jersey at the Somerset Marriott on the site of the original farmhouse. This is the first reunion where branches of the family from both north and south are attending. Other than building a website for the reunion, I have nothing to do with it, but thought you all might want to participate in it. For all the current information visit the website at <http://www10.brinkster.com/auten>. If you're interested, you'll need to call your reservations into the hotel right away and send your $30 per person for the Saturday evening meal to Phyllis Nash, listed in the "Contacts" section of the website. I wish you all a wonderful Memorial Day. Please pause for a moment today to remember our fallen ancestors. Colleen

    05/27/2002 04:25:48
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Friends! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Hi everyone, :) Monday, May 27th, is Memorial Day (also called Decoration Day) here in the United States. It is a patriotic holiday, a day to honor those in military service who died (some very young) in far away places fighting to protect our future. Originally, Memorial Day honored military personnel who died in the Civil War. It now also honors those who died in all wars in which the United States participated. This edition of the Sunday Morning Coffee is dedicated to our military that fought for our freedom and sacrificed their lives protecting our precious democracy. I also dedicate this Coffee to those veterans who are still with us and remembering the horrific experiences they encountered fighting for us. Memorial Day ~ a time set aside to remember our servicemen and women who give their lives for our country... PLEASE BE SURE TO READ THIS PARAGRAPH: I should warn you that I've written a short story for the day that I hope will tug at your heart. I also hope you enjoy it. Truthfully, I debated whether or not to use it in today's Coffee and had six people read it to make sure I wasn't being "too bad." It's fitting for today's Coffee and intentionally, not too graphic; but if your spirit is low already, please don't read it. I cried when I created this story, but as the wife of a serviceman, it hits especially close to me. MEMORIAL DAY PROCLAMATION EXECUTIVE OFFICE, SANTA FE, N.M. Again the day approaches which a beautiful custom devotes to honoring the memory of the departed heroes of the Republic, who have given up their lives that the country might live, and by their deaths have shed such lustre upon the glorious history of our nation. While on that day we should mourn for the dead, we must also remember the living who are serving their country by land and sea, and also the survivors of a past generation who still tarry among us, and endeavor to make life more easy for them in their declining years, that they may long live to enjoy the blessings of that country they helped to save. Now, Therefore, I, Miguel A. Otero, Governor of the Territory of New Mexico, do recommend that upon Saturday, the Thirtieth day of May, A.D. 1903, the people of the territory refrain from all unnecessary labor, and all public amusements, and join with the Grand Army of the Republic, and other patriotic societies in due and proper observance of Memorial Day, recalling the memory of the heroic dead and recounting their valiant deeds. Let us on that day by song and speech and sweet flowers give expression of our reverence and gratitude to those who gave their lives to perpetuate the Republic; to acts of respect and care for those soldiers and sailors who have survived in the wars in which they were engaged and in honor of those who are now serving their country as soldiers and sailors. .-----. Done at the Executive Office, / Seal \ this the 19th day of May, A.D. 1903. \ of NM / Witness my hand and the great seal of the '-----' Territory of New Mexico. [signed] Miguel A. Otero By the Governor: J.W. Raynolds. Secretary of New Mexico. Today's topics include: 1. Memorial Day proclamation 2. Welcome to new subscribers 3. Did you know... 4. His Love, Forever TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. DID YOU KNOW...? ... that since the end of World War I, Memorial Day has also been Poppy Day? Paper poppies are sold by members of the American Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) made by disabled veterans. This bright red wildflower became a symbol after the horrific WWI battle in Flanders Field in Belgium. The field, littered with the bodies of young soldiers, was also filled with poppies. ... that Memorial Day was originally known as Decoration Day because it was a time set aside to honor the nation's Civil War dead by decorating their graves? With the passage of time, Memorial Day was extended to honor all those who died in service to the nation, from the Revolutionary War to the present. ... that the first celebration of Decoration Day was in 1866 in Waterloo, New York? The national Memorial Day holiday was first observed on May 30, 1868, on the order of General John Alexander Logan for the purpose of decorating the graves of the American Civil War dead. ... that the southern states also have their own days for honoring the Confederate dead? ~ Mississippi, the last Monday in April; Alabama, the fourth Monday in April; Georgia, April 26th; North and South Carolina, May 10th; Virginia, the last Monday in May; Louisiana and Tennessee, June 3rd; and Texas, January 19th. ... that Pennsylvania law mandates that all counties provide veterans' graves each year with a flag, most of which are distributed before Memorial Day? HIS LOVE, FOREVER A war zone Any place Any time ~ It is said that the true patriot is a good citizen as well as, on occasion of need, a willing and valiant soldier.~ He'd joined the army just six months ago and now, here he was embroiled in a war far from his home, and preparing to engage in battle. His life wasn't supposed to be like this; he was supposed to have been home seeing his second child born, living a quiet and comfortable life. BOOM... BANG! An explosive concussion landed so close he thought he'd been hit! His head hurt, his ears were ringing and his uniform was muddier now than it was just seconds ago. He looked around and saw three of his friends lying lifeless on the ground, other comrades nearby were writhing in pain. BOOM... BANG! He *had* to get across this field before he was killed! He never heard the one that hit him, never felt the pain of his wounds, never felt himself fall. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ He stood up and looked around. The men that had been around him were tossed in so many directions. The field was one of carnage ~ there was no other way to explain it. Blood... men's blood... claimed the field in ever-growing patches. He seemed to be okay though, and wasn't nearly as exhausted as he'd felt a few seconds ago. Maybe there was something to being unconscious. But he *still* had to get across that field! BOOM!...PHEWWW! Shots were all around him, men falling and screaming. He ran... hard, with a determination born of someone who'd had enough. His friends were there... waiting for him it seemed... waiting on the road. What? How can this be? He'd just seen them die! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ It's said that when a person isn't ready to cross to the next realm, that their spirit will refuse to leave.... There she was... his beautiful wife! He loved her so much. But, she was sobbing, as though in great pain! Why? She should be happy to see him! What's she reading? It looks like a letter, "....your husband fought valiantly but was cutdown by enemy fire as he was trying to save another during the battle at...." NO! He WASN'T dead! He was HERE! Look at me! I'm here! I'm too young! NOOOO! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ She looked at his picture, touching it with her hands as the tears rolled down her face. She couldn't believe sixteen years had gone by already. She could still sense him and smell him; she missed him so... >From the other side of the picture, he put his shadowed hand up, mirroring hers, and let her know everything was okay. ~FINIS~ A piece of fiction... or is it? For many, Memorial Day carries no special meaning except perhaps an extra day off from work, a beach barbecue, the start of the summer travel season, or for merchants, the opportunity to hold their annual Memorial Day Weekend sale. In reality, the holiday is observed in honor of our nation's armed service personnel who were killed in wartime. It is meant to be a solemn day of mourning, remembrance, and thanks to those war heroes who have suffered and perished so that we can live and stay secure ~ a day for us to pay tribute to the gallant souls who laid down their lives in the service of our great nation.. Whether you accept war or not isn't the issue here ~ whether or not you had an ancestor die in battle is; and paying tribute to that ancestor is, too. So, on this day, when you think it's only for a three-day weekend, please remember our military who have died and paid the ultimate price. "A man isn't gone until he's forgotten." Let's not forget ours. Family ... it's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. Happy Memorial Day, everyone. Please, stay safe! ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    05/26/2002 01:06:15
    1. [ATEN] A message from Colleen re: today's SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. Good morning all, Today I take a day to be with my family. Most of you know I'm an Army wife. My husband just returned home after being gone a while and I'll be spending the day with him. I'll be back with you next week. Family... it's what we're all about. I wish you all a SUPER Sunday and a WONDERFUL week! :) Colleen

    05/19/2002 01:55:26
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Mother's Day proclamation 2. Welcome to new researchers 3. Happy Mother's Day! 4. A tiny history of motherhood and the family 5. Baking a cake with your child's help 6. Did you know...? MOTHER'S DAY PROCLAMATION By the Governor Following the beautiful custom with which we have become familiar in recent years, the time has come to name a day to be known as Mothers' Day, a day whose observance shall honor the memory of our departed mothers and pay a tribute of gratitude and affection to those who are still with us. In the watchful, tender care which guided our earliest footsteps, in the constant planning for our welfare and our happiness, in the unfailing love that has blessed us all thorugh the years up to manhood and womanhood and that still blesses and cheers us, though it be but a dear memory, in these things we find abundant reason for humble and grateful acknowledgment of the debt we owe our mothers. The very name of mother is a synonym for love and devotion and willing sacrifice. Therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as Governor of the State of Michigan, I do hereby designate and proclaim Sunday, May fourteenth, 1922, as Mothers' Day, and I call upon our people, both old and young, to gather in their several places of worship and take part in services appropriate to the day. And let absent sons and daughters take this occasion to visit the mother in the old home, or, where such a visit is impossible, let them send a message of cheer and greeting. In accordance with a resolution of the Congress of the United States, I further request the people of Michigan on the day aforesaid to display the United States flag in their homes and in other suitable places, as a fitting expression of their desire to pay homage to American motherhood. Given under my hand and the Great Seal of the State this Twenty-seventh day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and twenty-two, and of the Commonwealth the eighty-sixth. Alex J. Groesbeck. Governor. By the Governor: Charles J. DeLand. Secretary of State. The exact date might be different, but the special day itself is still the same, and I couldn't have said it any better. TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. HAPPY MOTHER'S DAY! We always remember the maternal tenderness which is very hard to remove from the heart. Even when we grow old, there remains the distant memories and the strong desire to see our mothers once again. I hope this Mother's Day Coffee will help you to mentally "revisit" with your own mother. ... {@} * {@} {@} * {@} * {@} A picture memory brings to me; : * {@} * {@} * .; I look across the years and see {@} * {@} * {@} * {@} Myself beside my mother's knee. * ; * ; {@} * ; * : I feel her gentle hand restrain ;\ \ \ \| / / /; My selfish moods, and know again \\ \ Y/ / / A child's blind sense of wrong and pain. `_\ |/ _' But wiser now, / \\Y// \ A child gray grown, ( ,-}={-, ) My childhood's needs are better known. \_//((\_/ My mother's chastening love I own. //))(\ (/ )) (/ A TINY HISTORY OF MOTHERHOOD AND THE FAMILY >From the Middle Ages to the mid-19th century, the household served a range of functions with a variety of productive, educational, religious, and welfare roles that, years later were shed to other institutions. Mothering was extensive rather than intensive. Up until the twentieth century, a woman typically bore seven to ten children. Rather than focusing care and concern strictly on their children, mothers devoted generalized attention to a large number of extended kin and non-kin, including lodgers, servants, apprentices. Households were busy and often crowded places where childrearing responsibilities had to be balanced with other demands on a woman's time. Mothers were not only responsible for feeding, clothing, supervising, and instructing their own children, but also supervising, disciplining, and training apprentices and servants and assisting in their husband's economic affairs. An industrious housewife was supposed to be a skilled spinner, sewer, knitter, food processor, brewer, and cook; a productive gardener; a household manufacturer; and a resourceful trader. During the first decades of the nineteenth century, the workplace moved some distance from the home. Increasingly, men left home each day to go to work while their wives stayed home. New, heavily gendered roles emerged along with a growing belief in Western Europe, England, and the United States that the children's nurture and moral development should be entrusted to mothers ~ that women, free from the corrupting influences of business and politics, had the special ability to mold the character traits in children upon which a society depended. As a result, many middle-class women began to define themselves as nurturers and full-time mothers. A shift in vocabulary came about. Instead of calling a wife "Mistress," a word descriptive of a woman's responsibilities over servants, apprentices, and journeymen, she was called "Mrs.," usually with her husband's name appended. Strict, Victorian attitudes played heavily in early twentieth century childrearing. A degree of maternal detachment that we would find surprising today was recommended. Childrearing experts advised mothers to establish rigid schedules for their children and avoid picking them up or caressing them. Behaviorists warned about "the dangers of too much mother love," while a manual on raising children expressed concern that maternal love prevented mothers from adopting "the most intelligent approach to many problems of childhood." By the 1930's though, a mother's relationship to her children began to center at the very heart of family relationships. Children overwhelmingly identified the mother as the family's source of emotional sustenance. Benjamin Spock, Penelope Leach and other childrearing gurus reinforced a belief that mothers were almost wholly responsible for their children's emotional, psychological, and social development. By the 1960s, the women's movement had put an end to the romanticized version of the stay-at-home mom. Harriet Nelson, June Cleaver and Margaret Anderson ~ dedicated TV homemakers who were once the epitome of America's housewife and mother became role models of the past. Housewives all across the country were about to undergo a dramatic change in lifestyle. With the advent of modern inventions, daily homemaking was revolutionized. Until that time, housewives had spent 10 to 15 hours a week over an ironing board, pressing out the wrinkles in their families' wardrobe of cotton and starched linen. Invention of the microwave shortened cooking times tremendously. Housewives were free to pursue new goals. By the 1990s, 75% of all mothers were holdings jobs outside the home. Mothers began carving careers for themselves in the business and corporate world. A dynamic generation of working women was born and the words "simple" and "housewife" would never again be used together. While holding down her traditional job of family caregiver, wife and mother, today's working mom pursues a full-time career outside the home. To help her accomplish this, she employs a variety of necessary essentials for running a modern, well-organized home: cell phones, au pairs to watch the children, nanny-cams to watch the au pairs, and a pager so she can be reached at any time. And, for a fee and a password, she can log on through her computer to a video service that connects her to her children's daycare center. Technical advances over the next century promise to bring even more change to modern motherhood. However, just as she has done through the millennia, today's mother will adapt to it, change it, alter, even revise it, but never will she abdicate motherhood. BAKING A CAKE WITH YOUR CHILD'S HELP Preheat oven. Check to be certain that there are no rubber balls or plastic soldiers on the shelves. Remove blocks and toy autos from table. Grease pan. Crack nuts. Measure 2 cups flour; remove Johnny's hands from flour; wash flour off him. Re-measure flour. Crack more nuts to replace those Johnny ate. Put flour, baking powder and salt in sifter. Get dustpan and brush up pieces of bowl Johnny knocked on floor. Get another bowl. Answer doorbell. Return to kitchen. Remove Johnny's hands from bowl. Wash Johnny. Answer telephone. Return. Remove 1/4 inch salt from greased pan. Look for Johnny. Grease another pan. Answer telephone. Return to kitchen and find Johnny. Remove his hands from bowl. Take up greased pan and remove layer of nut shells in it. Head for Johnny, who runs, knocking bowl off table. Wash kitchen floor, table, walls, dishes. Call bakery, place order. Take two aspirin. Lie down DID YOU KNOW...? ...that research shows that if it weren't for mothers, approximately 92% of us would freeze to death without a jacket on before we reached the age of 18? ...that the first celebrations in honor of mothers were held in the spring in ancient Greece? They paid tribute to Rhea, the Mother of the Gods. ...that hierolyphs in the Great Pyramids clearly indicate that, since ancient times, motherhood has been known to be most enjoyable after the kids are in bed? ...that during the 17th century, England honored mothers on "Mothering Sunday," celebrated on the fourth Sunday of Lent? It began as a day when apprentices and servants could return home for the day to visit their mothers. They often brought a gift with them, often a "mothering cake" -- a kind of fruitcake or fruit-filled pastry known as simnels. Furmety, a sweetened boiled cereal dish, was often served at the family dinner during Mothering Sunday celebrations. ...that there are good reasons to believe that without mothers the majority of us would be severly malnourished from growing up on a diet of taco chips and beer or diet Pepsi? Although unmarried people have been known to survive for years on taco chips and beer or diet Pepsi, experts have confirmed that such a limited diet can be particularly harmful in a child's formative years. ...that ancient Romans celebrated a holiday in honor of Cybele, a mother goddess, March 22-25 - the celebrations were notorious enough that followers of Cybele were banished from Rome? ...that recent polls clearly show that without mothers, most laundry, particulary men's, would not get washed until it smelled worse than an egg salad sandwish that had been sitting in the sun for five days? ...that in the British Isles and Celtic Europe, the goddess Brigid, and later her successor St. Brigid, were honored with a spring Mother's Day, connected with the first milk of the ewes. ...that when a woman becomes a mother, she no longer needs an alarm clock? She also has increased ability to walk on a sticky floor without cleaning it up. ...that in the United States, Julia Ward Howe suggested the idea of Mother's Day in 1872? Howe, who wrote the words to the Battle Hymn of the Republic, saw Mother's Day as being dedicated to peace. ...that Anna Jarvis of Philadelphia is credited with bringing about the official observance of Mother's Day? Her campaign to establish such a holiday began as a remembrance of her mother, who died in 1905 and who had, in the late 19th century, tried to establish "Mother's Friendship Days" as a way to heal the scars of the Civil War. ...that mothers have their own special kind of logic which conclusively and immediately resolves all arguments in their favor? The typical deployment of this logic involves the words, "Because I said so." Past motherhood, nothing else will ever make you as happy or as sad, as proud or as tired, for nothing is quite as hard as helping a person develop his own individuality while you struggle to keep your own. It's family ... and that's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. HAPPY MOTHER'S DAY! ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    05/12/2002 02:26:43
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. A pioneer's home, sweet home TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. I'm sitting here at my computer in a most comfortable office chair with my cup of coffee after spending the night in a very comfortable bed. It's just 40 degrees here right now so our house furnace is running. Next month at this same time we'll probably be in the 90's and we'll turn on our house air conditioner. Other than the occasional (ew!) spider, our 2600 square foot home is free of insects. With all the coffee and tea I drink, my favorite room of the house is visited often!... and it's just a few feet down the hall here from my study, where I am now. I'll admit it; I'm spoiled. So are you. You read it right, we're both spoiled! And what makes me say this? I sit here thinking about all that I have, and yet on some days I complain about our home: too big, too small, too hot inside, too cold, too this, too that. I'm sure you've done the same thing. :) Then I think back on our early, pioneering ancestors and what THEY lived in. I'm sure they complained, too; but it seems that when I think about it, I really haven't a thing to fuss about when it comes to my home! Today's Coffee isn't about the pioneers themselves, though ~ but the structures they lived in with a touch on their home furnishings. Please, read on... According to the Homestead Act of 1862 any citizen of the United States over twenty-one years of age could acquire 160 acres of land priced at $1.25 an acre, or 80 acres of land for which the government price was $2.50 an acre if he lived on the homestead for five years and complied with other requirements. A later amendment provided that time spent in the military service of the United States was to be deducted from the five years required in ordinary cases, but the veteran still had to take up residence on his homestead and improve it. With these incentives, thousands of people decided to take up homesteads. Most of our adventurous ancestors who traveled into the western frontier were from the east with its "modern ways." The lot of the pioneer was a hard life, and not everyone who made the trip remained. Only our sturdiest forebears learned to deal with and tolerate hardships, deprivation and hard living. They had many difficulties to contend with, not the least of which was the journey from civilization to their new homes. There were no roads, only trails. In some places, where there were not even trails, the pioneers navigated by compass. The route lay through a wild and rough country. Swamps, marshes, plains and deserts were crossed with great exertion and fatigue; rivers were forded with difficulty and danger; nights were passed with mother earth for a couch and the trees and foliage for a shelter. Survival was dependent upon ingenuity, hard work, self-reliance, and a lot of good luck. Long, weary days and months of travel were endured until finally, the travelers reached their destination. Unfortunately though, there was no time for relaxation; for upon arriving at the site of their claim and deciding where and how their home would sit on it, it was imperative to set about building. While this was being done, the family slept in their wagon or upon the grass. Depending on their new region of residence, their home would be a log cabin, a sod house, or a dugout ~ all of which would likely have a dirt floor and no windows, at least to start. As the ability to make money was not great, the pioneers learned to be satisfied in an atmosphere of hardship and compensated with good, social, friendly feeling among their neighbors. Being "down right neighborly" took on a more important meaning. When a newcomer located his claim, the day for the raising was announced. Neighbors for miles around would assemble at the site of his proposed cabin and aid him in erecting it. One group would cut down the trees with axes and square up the logs; another with teams would haul the logs to the ground; another party would "raise" the cabin; while several of the old men would split off thicknesses of tree bark, saplings, or hollow logs for the roof. The pioneer's first home was often a log cabin about 15 feet square with a dirt floor tramped hard and smooth. After a roof was put on, the builder put all of his attention to the fireplace. Most early settlers had no stoves of any kind, hence the fireplace with its hanging pots assumed the double role of heating the house and cooking the food. The main problem in building fireplaces without bricks was in making the chimney. Usually a double square box of sticks was used as a form and the insides were filled with sticky mud or clay. By the time a fire had burned away the inside sticks the clay had hardened sufficiently to form a reliable chimney. A clapboard door secured by wooden hinges sported a wooden-latch fastening. Cracks in the walls were filled in with moss and split sticks of wood, then daubed over inside and out with mud or a clay mortar. By evening the forest home was finally ready for its occupants. Here the family lived, and here the guest and wayfarer were made welcome. Log cabins weren't very big, but they protected the occupants from the elements. If a log cabin had an upstairs and wood flooring instead of the more common packed earth floor, it was considered elaborate for its time. "Ma, where's Pa?" the child asked. "He's out chopping trees to make furniture for the new house," Ma replied. In a one-room log cabin, space was extremely limited. Furniture was basic and multi-functional. Tables were made from planks and there were benches or stools instead of chairs. Sometimes the room was so crowded, the children had to stand while they ate. Several boards, placed upon pins in the logs, were shelves for the pewter dishes, wooden trenchers, cups and cooking utensils. A gun was hung upon hooks fastened to the wall. Corner closets, cupboards and trunks held daily household items while other supplies were stored in rafters, barns or sheds. Bedsteads were made by placing low posts on the floor and laying slats from these to a crack in the side of the cabin. Children slept on floor pallets or next to their parents in trundle beds. The saying "Sleep tight, don't let the bed bugs bite," originated from the ropes or deerskin strips on the beds. Keeping these ropes tight prevented the cornshuck, straw, moss or sometimes cattail-filled tick (mattress) from sagging to the floor. The room was a good size, but it was also kitchen, bedroom, parlor and arsenal, with flitches of bacon and rings of dried pumpkins suspended from the rafters. Any windows were covered with oil paper or cloth. The door might only have been a blanket. The cabin was lit with candles and kerosene lamps. House warmth and hot meals came from the fireplace. There might be a trapdoor in the floor opening into a crude cellar (used for refrigeration) with steps cut into a dirt wall. Water came from streams, wells, a cistern or rain barrel. If instead, our ancestors were settlers arriving on the plains and faced the task of building a home, they didn't have benefit of a forest of trees with which to build it. Most pioneers traveled from the coast where trees were readily available for building, shade, food, and firewood. Instead, the plains homesteaders were greeted by fields and rolling hills of grass and prairie plants, but no trees; shelter would not be easy without logs and lumber. Using ingenuity and the treeless land, our plains ancestors realized the plains provided an unlimited resource that the settlers could use ~ sod. They created their homes from it ~ homes that became permanent residences. But it wasn't easy. Settlers had to chop and break through the top layer of prairie to create tillable soil if they were to a have a crop. They also needed to get through that top layer to build their homes. You've heard the term, "sodbuster?" This is where the term came from. The pioneers were called that because they had to "bust" through the sod to reach soil suitable to farm. This tough layer of prairie sod held together for a depth of about a foot. Once the homesteader found a rise in the ground suitable to build his dwelling, he patted down the dirt until it was rock hard. After mowing the grass, the prairie was cut into pieces of sod or "bricks" two feet long, one foot wide, and four inches deep with a special horse-drawn plow or by hand, with an ax and/or shovel. It took an acre of sod to build a one-room house. Fortunately, neighbors usually helped one another. Sod houses, or "soddies," were houses built with several thicknesses of stacked layers of sod bricks. Two layers of bricks were laid lengthwise with a third layer crosswise. The crosswise pattern made the house stable. The individual bricks were interlocked to form walls two to three bricks deep. These bricks, with their intricate root systems still intact, were placed grass side down and held together by the thick network of roots that made preparing fields for planting so very difficult. The roots attached themselves to other bricks, locking them together. They cut the tough sod and piled it into walls, covering the top with poles, grass, sod and clay, leaving openings for the windows and door. The walls were usually 2 - 4 feet thick. Common knowlege was that the thicker the wall, the better it stood and the longer it lasted. No mortar or mud was used between the layers. Once the roof was covered with more sod, the house was ready for occupancy. Furnishings, often very basic, were moved in and a stove installed. The interior walls of sod houses were often covered with newspapers or canvas. Windows were often covered with paper greased with animal fat, and a blanket was hung in the doorway. The hard clay floor of a sod house was usually watered every week or so ~ smoothing it out to make a new floor. Fire wasn’t much of a problem, with a dirt roof and walls; but ventilation and smoke drafts could be very troublesome, especially in winter. Sod houses varied. The finished product would be square, rectangular, T or L shaped, but it was always just one level.* Some soddies were built with more than one room, with dividers of tarp paper or blankets to create rooms. Some whitewashed the interiors to lighten them up and also covered the outside to protect it from the weather which was hard on such structures. [*There were no two-story soddies since they weren't practical ~ the walls would be too high to stand well.] Sod houses began to dot the landscape and there were more of these houses than of any other kind. Only a minimal amount of lumber was needed, for a door and one or more windows. In 1872 Montgomery Ward marketed windows and frames for $1.25, and the railroads carried these and other supplies to the frontier. In accordance with the Homestead Act, homeowners had to fulfill improvement requirements to take title to the land, thus creating a market for ready-made accessories. One factor contributing to the long life of a sod house that still stands today, is the fact that its foundation is of concrete foundation above the ground. The sod wall arose straight up from there. If the sod was started from the level of the ground, right at the surface was where the rats, mice, bugs, worms and such things would burrow in, thereby undermining the foundation. The wall being heavy, it would not stand up long when the foundation was weakened. The family dog would also contribute to that cause. In addition, open-range cattle liked to rub against the corners. It seems there was nothing else for miles to rub on so the house became the prime target. In addition to the above, living in sod houses presented many obstacles. The soddie leaked continuously. This led to wet bedding and clothes after a heavy rain. Women reportedly held umbrellas over their stoves while cooking. Tarps were hung on the ceiling to catch particles of dirt that fell. Living creatures shared the sod dwellers’ space as well. Snakes, mice, and bugs were everyday inhabitants of the sod house. Black ants were always present and it was necessary to keep all foods of their liking in tightly covered tin cans. And, let's not forget the fleas and bed bugs! The soddie had its drawbacks to be sure, but its good qualities were many. The problem of insulation never entered into the builder's problem; it being of earth, the insulating effects were combined with the material by nature, and the builder had not to worry about that. Since they were constructed from earth, soddies were cool in the summer and easy to keep warm in the winter. When prairie fires threatened, the sod house became a safe haven. Farmers brought their livestock and anything worth saving into the soddie until the fire had passed As soon as a family could afford it, they purchased lumber to build a frame house, thus leaving behind a part of the pioneer era. Interestingly, quite a number of families elected to remain in their sod houses when their neighbors were building more expensive frame houses. This may have been a matter of frugality; on the other hand, it may have been simple prudence. Sod was tighter than wood-frame, and it insulated better. Those settlers who stayed in their sod houses, however, made substantial improvements to them, stabilizing walls, adding windows, and modifying roofs. Many added wooden lean-tos to their sod houses as entry ways or as additional rooms. The second common type of plains home was the dugout ~ a home dug into a hillside, leaving a space in one end, usually toward the south, open for a door. The homesteader dug into the hill from a level of where he wanted his front to be, then built up the desired height with sod. Dugouts excavated into the side of a hill to a depth of 4 ' had an above-ground segment constructed of cottonwood poles and branches. Pioneers not so fortunate as to have hills on their land, dug down, making dugouts below the ground surface. In both dugout designs, the floors were often bare ground. Buffalo hides often formed the roof and door. None of these early homes had indoor plumbing. This means that they had a well, a creek or stream outside to get water that they used for drinking, cooking, and taking a bath. The bathrooms were called outhouses, little shacks outside and away from the main house. In the very early pioneering days on the frontier, there was no store to buy matches. If the fire in the fireplace, should go out during the night, one member of the family would have to be dispatched to the nearest neighbor to borrow a live coal. Some children of early pioneers were adults before ever seeing a cookstove or a match for starting fires. Years later, after a saw mill was set up in the community, bigger and better homes made from planks of wood were built. Homes then were usually two-story, wooden-floored and much larger, with at least 3 or 4 rooms. They had a small kitchen with a table. A ladder elevated to a loft where the children would sleep, while the parents slept in a small room downstairs. A medium-sized room served as the family room. Fireplaces kept the rooms warm, but so did the braided rugs they now walked on. Most of these people came from a better way of life, whether from more civilized parts of our own country, or perhaps from one of the northern European countries. Not only had they left better homes, but in most cases they were not able to bring all their beloved possessions with them, not even all the tools and implements they so desperately needed. What those plains pioneers hadn't known until they arrived was that homesteader's conditions in the early 1900s were similar to conditions found in the eastern U.S. 200 years earlier. Some assumed that their hard struggle would be principally over after the first year. Looking for "easier times next year" for many years before realizing them caused much disillusionment. The easier times came in so slyly as to be almost imperceptible. These early homes demonstrated the creativity of our ancestors. Log cabins, sod houses and dugouts were inexpensive to build. However humble though, our great grandparents worked extremely hard for it ~ it was their own, and it was home. These utilitarian residences displayed pioneer craftsmanship and the determination of the pioneers to experience their dreams... enabling us today to sit back and reflect in awe. It's family ... and that's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    05/04/2002 10:20:36
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. In the good old days: dentistry TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. IN THE GOOD OL' DAYS: DENTISTRY I had a series of dental appointments a few weeks back and, while sitting in "the chair," it occurred to me that as miserable as I was currently feeling, I actually had it pretty good! So many advances have been made in dentistry even since I was a child. We willingly go sit in a chair, open our mouths, and allow (sometimes) a perfect stranger to prowl around in there! :) Well... You know how we sometimes long for the days back when? The times were slower, quieter, easier. There's a saying that goes, "time eases all pain." Well, that may happen for us today, but I doubt that was the case "in the good ol' days" of dentistry. ~ Any time, any place ~ As happened every morning, the roosters woke him. He climbed out of his bed and stretched. A yawn of the newly-awakened, yet still sleepy, escaped him and sucking in his breath, he instantly received a jolting pain. His tooth hurt something awful! He ran his tongue over the throbbing tooth and felt a small, sharp groove where a piece of it had broken off two weeks ago. His teeth weren't in the best of shape anyway, but he'd never had one pain him like this. It felt like there was a blister near the tooth. "This has to be fixed." he'd thought to himself. Never having taken care of his teeth before this, our ancestor was in for a rude awakening. His tooth was now abscessed and needed pulling.... Read what likely happened to our ancestor through the generations: ~ The Ancient World ~ With varying degrees of success man has utilized methods to lessen pain: mandrake, opium and other poppy extracts, henpane, fermented and distilled beverages, nerve compresses, cold, extreme fatique from prohibiting sleep, bleeding to the point of fainting and shock, and hypnosis. The first evidence of a surgical operation was found in Egypt. A mandible with two perforations just below the root of the first molar indicated the establishment of drainage of an abscessed tooth. The approximate date is 2750 B.C. The splinting of teeth also was practiced by Egyptians; evidenced by a specimen from Cizeh, 2500 B.C. It shows two molars fastened with heavy gold wire. In 2700 B.C., the Chinese were known to have treated dental ills with knife, cautery, and acupuncture, a technique whereby they punctured different areas of the body with a needle. Archigenes (c. 54 B.C. to 17 A.D.), a Roman general physician (including surgery and dentistry) stated that many cases of toothache were caused from a disease in the interior of the tooth. In such cases he introduced a technique which has continued to the present day, perforating the pulp with a drill, known as trephining. He invented a special drill for this purpose. Some of the other treatments he recommended for toothache were: 1. Cleaning the decay from the cavity and then placing a mixture of turpentine and iron sulfate into the cavity, then dropping some of the same mixture into the ear on the side where the pain was felt. 2. The slough of a serpent, burnt and then reduced, by the addition of oil, to the consistency of solidified honey to be introduced into the prepared carious hollow and plastered over all the tooth and surrounding parts. 3. Roasted earthworms and spikenard (a medicinal plant) ointment mixed with crushed eggs of spiders to be introduced into the cleaned carious hollow. 4. If the pain is in a broken tooth, Archigenes recommended cauterization with a red-hot iron. Fun, huh? Read on... Claudius Galen (c. 130-200 A.D.), a Greek physician who practiced in Rome, recommended treating abscesses by cauterizing the ulcers with boiling oil carried to the site with a sort of homemade Roman Q-tip. When a tooth is extended above the level of the other teeth, Galen would hold the tooth firmly with a small piece of cloth while he filed it with an iron file. When the patient began to feel too much pain, he dismissed the patient to return the next day and continue the treatment. This went on until the tooth was filed even with the other teeth. [WARNING: THIS ONE IS GROSS!] One oral hygiene method can hardly be classified as an "advance," but it did persist long enough to earn a place in the history of dentistry. There is evidence that this custom also was borrowed from the Chinese and first record of it comes from the inhabitants of Spain. It consists of the use of urine as a mouthwash. Eighteen hundred years later the surgeon-dentist Pierre Fauchard advised people to use their own urine and only when they are feeling well. He admits it is difficult to get accustomed to, but then he adds "what would one not do for the sake of one's health." ~ Europe, Middle Ages ~ At the onset of the Middle Ages, monks became physicians and dentists, while barbers served as their assistants. When, in 1163, the pope ruled that any operation involving the shedding of blood was incompatible with the priestly office, barbers took over the practice of surgery. For a while then, dentistry was carried on by barber-surgeons both in France and England. They extracted teeth and performed minor surgery, in addition to cutting hair, applying leeches and performing embalming. After a number of years however, barber-surgeons were not the only ones doing extractions. A group made up of vagabonds who were known as tooth drawers plied their trade in public squares. Ether was discovered in this period (1275), but it wasn't used as a surgical anesthetic agent until 1846. Until then, our ancestors continued to suffer excruciating pain at the hands of barber-surgeons and tooth drawers. Dentistry in the medieval period was largely confined to tooth extraction; replacement was seldom considered. Gaps between teeth were expected, even among the rich and powerful. However, there have been replacements. Since antiquity, the most common material for false teeth was animal bone or ivory, especially from elephants or hippopotami. Human teeth were also used, pulled from the dead or sold by poor people from their own mouths. These kinds of false teeth soon rotted, turning brown and rancid. Rich people preferred teeth of silver, gold, mother of pearl, or agate. Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) filled the holes in her mouth with cloth to improve her appearance in public. At this point in history, the barber-surgeon was the closest thing to a dentist yet, but our poor ancestor was still in for a rude awakening... Tooth decay became much more prevalent in many European countries in the 17th century with the introduction of sugar from the East Indies and the New World. By around age 40 most people began to experience tooth decay and abscess formations. Generally, abscesses went without any effective treatment and most resulted in fatalities. Dental infections and complications of tooth extraction were among the most common causes of death listed in the "Bills of Mortality" from the time the recording began in the 1600s until around 1800. ~ America, 18th Century ~ >From the landing of the Pilgrims until 1765, nearly 150 years later, six tooth drawers came to America. The practitioners devoted themselves primarily to the removal of diseased teeth and the insertion of artificial dentures. The earliest devices for removing decayed tissue when a tooth developed a cavity were picks and enamel scissors. Then two-edged cutting instruments were designed, they were twirled in both directions between the fingers. An improved drill appeared in 1728. Its rotary movement was powered by catgut twisted around a cylinder, or by jewelers' bowstrings. Since there were no satisfactory filling materials or procedures at that time, decay usually proceeded until the patient had a toothache, the only remedy being extraction ~ still without anesthesia. All these teeth being removed.... when false teeth were installed, they were hand-carved and tied in place with silk threads. If not enough natural teeth remained, anchoring false ones was difficult. People who wore full sets of dentures had to remove them when they wanted to eat.* Upper and lower plates fit poorly and were held together with steel springs. Disconcertingly, the set of teeth could spring suddenly out of the wearer's mouth. The major obstacles to progress were finding suitable materials for false teeth, making accurate measurements of patient's mouth,and getting the teeth to stay in place. These problems began to be solved during this period.. *Until the late 1800s, catalogs listed "masticators," which crushed food so that it could be consumed by those without teeth. ~ 19th Century ~ In the 1800's, dental practices included such duties as extracting teeth with the turnkey (a primitive tool like a ratchet wrench used for extracting teeth), cleaning the teeth with scrapers and removing cavities with hand instruments. The filling materials used then were tin, gold foil, lead and silver. Dentures were carved from ivory or fashioned from the teeth of cattle. Up until 1841, when the first dental practice law was enacted in Alabama, anyone could hang a dentist sign above their door and start pulling teeth. Among those who did were barbers and fish sellers. The dental situation on the frontier was even worse. Treatment usually began and ended with extraction, sometimes carried out by minimally qualified physicians and often by a blacksmith or other persons adept in the use of tongs. Forceps used by the oral surgeons to pull teeth were instruments of torture until the 1844 introduction of inhalation anesthesia by Horace Wells, a Hartford, Connecticut dentist. Wells had discovered the anesthetic use of pure nitrous oxide. However, its effects were of short duration. It worked well when only one or two teeth were to be extracted. The speed that was required to remove several teeth at one sitting before the patient had regained consciousness often resulted in mutilation of the tissue, and many broken roots were left in the jaws. Still, nitrous oxide anesthesia was a huge improvement on the methods of the old days when whiskey stupor was the usual method for easing the tortures of extraction. In the evening of September 20, 1846, a man came to the office of Dr. William T.G. Morton, a Boston dentist. The man was suffering greatly from a toothache. He wanted the tooth extracted but was terrified of the operation. He had been reading about mesmerism. Apparently he thought Morton might be familiar with the technique because he asked him if he could mesmerize him before the extraction. Morton told him he had something better; he saturated his handkerchief with ether and gave it to the man to breathe through. The patient became unconscious and the tooth was extracted painlessly. The years of two-hour ordeals removing root-fractured teeth and leaving patients semi-conscious and exhausted from the agony were finally coming to an end. On October 16, 1846, in Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr. Morton administered ether while another doctor removed a tumor from the patient's lower jaw, with no pain. It is considered by historians to be one of the most significant events in the history of mankind. The following year, 1847, chloroform anesthesia was discovered in Scotland. In 1855, dentures cost between $2,000 and $5,000 a set! Obviously, not many of our ancestors had them, if any at all did. In 1856, J. B. Francis invented a technique for extracting teeth using forceps attached to an electric battery. The patient held the positive pole in his or her hand. When the forceps touched the tooth, the circuit was completed and the tooth was quickly extracted. This was not a huge success. Local anesthetics were first used in 1884. Novocaine was introduced into the practice of medicine in 1905. Next came Lidocaine in 1950. ... and from 1950 on, you probably know the rest of this story. Although this may seem like a Coffee relating not-at-all to genealogy, let's think about this. You may feel this way sometimes, but do you honestly believe that *you're* the only person in your ancestral line to visit a dentist? And, if you have hesitation about visiting one, just think how your ancestor felt! The next time you see an ancestral photograph where the person obviously has missing teeth, you can remember this Coffee. Obviously, this is a subject that every one of us can relate to, as did our ancestors. Since tooth and gum decay knows no boundaries ~ male or female; red, black, white, brown, or yellow skin; European, African, Asian, American, or Australian ~ it is one of our commonalities as members of the human race. One thing we don't have to identify with today though, is the literal torture our ancestors went through. Although we don't exactly know when our ancestors may have had dental work, the hope with this Coffee is that you get a basic idea of what they went through if they did. It's this type of "inside study" of our ancestor's lives that helps us to appreciate who they were as individuals that brought us to who we are today. Myself? I can truly empathasize with some of our earlier ancestors. For them, visiting the dentist (or his counterpart) was torture, literally. It's family ... and that's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    04/21/2002 12:03:12
    1. [ATEN] A QUIET LIST
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. Hi cousins, I've noticed that the list has been super quiet for a long time. That's not good. Why? It means we haven't been talking to each other. A quiet list stagnates rapidly, and stagnation destroys a list. We need to ensure that our list remains active. Are you all working on other lines? That could be a blessing in disguise for our family. If you belong to the surname list of your Aten/Auten spouse, information from those lines might just provide valuable clues to our lines here. How? Well, a big clue is the family naming pattern common in a lot of our Aten/Auten families; another might be families migrating together, then intermarrying. The point I'm trying to make here is even though our list has been quiet, let's keep it alive by bringing back any fresh data that we learn from our other discussion lists. One little tidbit can be enough to open an entire line of ancestors. So, what do you say family? Let's all get busy and start posting and talking again? After all, isn't finding our lines what brought us all together in the first place and gave us all this reason for sharing, for caring? I hope this finds each of you having a TERRIFIC Tuesday! :) Colleen

    04/16/2002 05:37:27
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new researchers 2. One day in time: on the day, April 14th... 3. You might be interested to know... 4. Suggested sites TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. ONE DAY IN TIME On this day, April 14th... 1775 1st abolitionist society in US organizes in Phila 1802 U.S. Academy at West Point founded 1803 U.S. doubles in size through the Louisiana Purchase ($15 million) 1803 1st U.S. public library opens (Connecticut) 1815 German states unite under the Act of Confederation 1818 US Medical Corp forms 1820 Tomato is proven nonpoisonous 1828 18-gun sloop "Acorn" sinks off Halifax with 115 men aboard 1828 1st edition of Noah Webster's dictionary published 1830 Regular steam train passenger service starts 1830 "Mary Had A Little Lamb" is written 1833 Jacob Evert & George Dulty patent soda fountain 1833 Czar Nicolas bans public sale of serfs 1833 John Deere makes 1st steel plow 1833 "Lady-of-the-Lake" strikes iceberg & sinks in N Atlantic; kills 215 1838 Iowa Territory is organized 1840 1st postage stamps (Penny Black) issued in Great Britain 1840 Tornado strikes Natchez Mississippi, kills 317 1840 New Zealand became a British colony 1840 Meteorite hits Uden, Netherlands 1842 City-wide fire burns for over 100 hours in Hamburg, Germany 1842 1st edition of London Illustrated News 1842 John Francis attempts to assassinate Queen Victoria 1845 Fire kills 1,600 in popular theater in Canton, China 1845 America's 1st black lawyer, Macon B. Allen, admitted to the bar (Massachusetts) 1851 1st major San Fransisco fire; most of city burned 1851 Dr John Gorrie patents a "refrigeration machine" 1859 Ground broken for Suez Canal 1859 "Pomona" sinks in North Atlantic drowning all 400 aboard 1860 1st Pony Express rider arrives in SF from St Joseph, Mo 1861 Formal Union surrender of Fort Sumter 1861 Federal army mobilized by U.S. President Lincoln 1861 Robert E. Lee resigns from Union army 1861 President Lincoln outlaws business with Confederate states 1864 Naval engagement at Cherbourg, France: USS Kearsage vs CSS Alabama 1865 President Abraham Lincoln shot in Ford's Theatre by John Wilkes Booth 1865 Mobile, Alabama is captured 1866 Karakozov attempts to assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia 1866 German Premier Otto von Bismarck seriously wounded in assassin attempt 1868 South Carolina voters approved constitution, 70,758 to 27,228 1870 Manitoba becomes a province of Canada 1872 Dominion Lands Act passed - Canada's Homestead Act 1887 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Reigate Squires" (BG) 1890 Pan American Day-1st conference of American states (Wash DC) 1894 1st public showing of Edison's kinetoscope (moving pictures) 1900 Veteran's Hospital at Ft Miley established 1910 President Taft begins tradition of throwing out ball on opening day 1912 The Titanic,launched on 31 May 1911, on route from Southampton to New York with 2200 passengers, strikes Iceburg off the coast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and sinks. (1,500+ death toll) 1923 Etienne Oehmichen sets helicopter distance record of 358 meters 1928 Maddus AL starts 1st regular passenger flights between SF & LA 1931 Spain becomes republic with overthrow of King Alfonso XIII 1933 Ada Lovelace, future 1st computer programmer, meets Charles Babbage 1942 Destroyer Roper sinks German U-85 off US east coast 1942 Lancasters bombs MANN-factory in Augsburg 1944 Freighter "Fort Stikene" explodes in Bombay India, killing 900 1945 Tokyo incendiary raids, using B-29's, damage Imperial Palace 1947 Operations begin at Radio Netherlands World radio 1948 A flash of light is observed in the crater Plato on the moon 1950 1st transatlantic jet passenger trip We have all just spent one day, April 14th, through 175 years. Why? I don't believe I need to remind anyone of the impact September 11th had on us ~ not just the U.S., but the entire world. One day, our descendants will look back on September 11th as yep, just another day. :-| But, isn't that what we've done to their catastrophic days or those affecting their lives? We read about the Titanic; "wow!" we think... and most of us go on with our lives, not stopping to realize just how horrific and shocking it must have been for the people then. It's important that we, especially as genealogists and family historians, recognize the impact that country and world events had on their lives ~ just as they do to us today; that those events be recognized, enabling us to "recapture" the lives of those people in their correct settings, and perhaps receive understanding of questions like, "why would they have wanted to move there and leave their family behind?" Whatever their reason, unless it was written in a diary and left for us today, it's up to use, the historians, to parse the details out that we might reach the conclusive truth. YOU MIGHT BE INTERESTED TO KNOW... some 1882 Prices: Bread: $0.02/loaf Milk: $0.16/gallon House: $4900.00 Income: $490.00/yearly, average some 1902 prices: Bread: $0.04/loaf Milk: $0.28/gallon Car: $500.00 House: $4,000.00 Stamp: $0.02/each Income: $681.00/yearly, average some 1947 prices: Bread: $0.12/loaf Milk: $0.80/gallon Eggs: $0.66/dozen Car: $15,00.00 Gas: $0.23/gallon House: $13,000.00 Stamp: $0.03/each Income: $3,456/yearly average SUGGESTED SITES: dMarie Time Capsule <http://dmarie.com/timecap> - In addition to the expected historical facts, create printable "Time Capsules" for any date in history from 1800 to 2001. On-This-Day <http://www.on-this-day.com/> - daily historical facts and events, famous birthdays, world history, music history, and quote of the day. Sympatico NewsExpress: On This Day <http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day> - Sympatico's news express details newsworthy events that occurred on this date in Canadian history. The History Channel <http://www.historychannel.com/thisday/> - Highlights one major event in recent times, and provides a short list of past events. It's family ... and that's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    04/14/2002 02:01:26
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. *Only* an 8th grade education... 3. Walk a little further down memory lane 4. Suggested sites TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. Let's sit back today and enjoy a nostalgic time in all our lives, recalling memories of our school days when the times were less harried than they are today. Have you noticed, no matter how much faster-paced life has become, each generation is able to return to their own views of "the good old days?" Presented here are memories of past school-times our parents and grandparents will more likely remember, and you may have even experienced part of. Join me for another cup of coffee and step back into yesteryear, into a century past... *ONLY* AN 8TH GRADE EDUCATION Remember... ... the welcoming clang of the old school bell? ... sitting at the desk next to the cozy pot-belly stove? ... giggling in clouds of chalk just as you clapped erasers for your favorite teacher? ... the look of pride on your father's weather-beaten face when you won the spelling bee? ... singing "America the Beautiful" as you gazed out the window at rolling hills of wildflowers? ... a "C" in Geography class that saved you from wearing the dunce cap? Getting an education in country school involved a lot of cold weather. Except for a few warm autumn weeks and nice spring weather it was cold and snow. The winter months were sometimes hard in a country school, trying to heat a cold drafty building, carrying water, shoveling snow and the hurried trip to an ice-cold outhouse. Recess and noon hour was a time of vigorous play and a quick game of fox and goose or a snowball fight. Recess was short, usually fifteen minutes, but a welcome break from the books. Dressing for winter meant long underwear, heavy coats and scarves for boys and girls. The long cold walk to and from school was the toughest when the bitter cold wind had to be faced. Some kids had only a short walk but many had a mile or two and very little shelter from the raging wind. So when any type of conveyance happened along and offered a ride it was eagerly accepted. But I've drifted from the topic here. Many of our grandparents went to school *only* until the 8th grade. I have to wonder if any of us could have graduated from a grade school in 1895? Following is an original eighth-grade final exam for 1895 transcribed from the original document at the Smokey Valley Genealogical Society and Library in Salina, Kansas. Students were allowed to take the test in the 7th grade, and if they did not pass the test at that time, were permitted to re-take it again in the 8th grade. This exam certainly shows how people with *only* an 8th grade education then could still have been successful. ************************* Reading and Penmanship. - The Examination will be oral, and the Penmanship of Applicants will be graded from the manuscripts. **Grammar (Time, one hour)** 1. Give nine rules for the use of Capital Letters. 2. Name the Parts of Speech and define those that have no modifications. 3. Define Verse, Stanza and Paragraph. 4. What are the Principal Parts of a verb? Give Principal Parts of do, lie, lay and run. 5. Define Case. Illustrate each case. 6. What is Punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of Punctuation. 7-10 Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar. ************************************* **Arithmetic (Time, 1 ¼ hour)** 1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic. 2. A wagon box is 2 ft. deep, 10 feet long, and 3 ft. wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold? 3. If a load of wheat weights 3942 lbs., what is it worth at 50 cts. Per bu., deducting 1050 lbs for tare? 4. District No. 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals? 5. Find cost of 6720 lbs. coal at $6.00 per ton. 6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7 per cent. 7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft. long at $20 per m? 8. Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 per cent. 9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance around which is 640 rods? 10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt. ************************************* **U.S. History (Time, 45 minutes)** 1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided. 2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus. 3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War. 4. Show the territorial growth of the United States. 5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas. 6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion. 7. Who were the following: Morse, Whtney, Fulton, Bell, Lincoln, Penn, and Howe? 8. Name events connected with the following dates: 1607, 1620, 1800, 1849, and 1865. ************************************* **Orthography (Time, one hour)** 1. What is meant by the following: Alphabet, phonetic orthogaphy, etymology, syllabication? 2. What are elementary sounds? How classified? 3. What are the following, and give examples of each: Trigraph, subvocals, diphthong, cognate letters, linguals? 4. Give four substitutes for caret “u”. 5. Give two rules for spelling words with final “e”. Name two exceptions under each rule. 6. Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each. 7. Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word: Bi, dis, mis, pre, semi, post, non, inter, mono, super. 8. Mark diacritically and divide into syllables the following, and name the sign that indicates the sound: Card, ball, mercy, sir, odd, cell, rise, blood, fare, last. 9. Use the following correctly in sentences: Cite, site, sight, fane, fain, feign, vane, vain, vein, raze, raise, rays. 10. Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation by use of diacritical marks and by syllabication. ************************************* **Geography (Time, one hour)** 1. What is climate? Upon what does climate depend? 2. How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas? 3. Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean? 4. Describe the mountains of N.A. 5. Name and describe the following: Monrovia, Odessa, Denver, Manitoba, Hecla, Yukon, St. Helena, Juan Fernandez, Aspinwall, and Orinoco. 6. Name and locate the principal trade centers of the U.S. 7. Name all the republics of Europe and give capital of each. 8. Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same latitude? 9. Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the sources of rivers. 10. Describe the movements of the earth. Give inclination of the earth. ************************************* **5 Additional questions, neither subject nor testing time is shown** 1. Where are the saliva, gastric juice, and bile secreted? What is the use of each in digestion? 2. How does nutrition reach the circulation? 3. What is the function of the liver? Of the kidneys? 4. How would you stop the flow of blood from an artery in the case of laceration? 5. Give some general directions that you think would be beneficial to preserve the human body in a state of health. ************************************* Well, how'd you do? Not great, huh? Well, that's okay. :) It's likely many of the rest of us didn't make terrific scores, either. Let's change subjects, then. However, before we do, when you come across an ancestor who lived in those early years and you discover to your 'dismay' that s/he only had an 8th grade education, perhaps you'll recall your own attempts to come up to their level. WALK A LITTLE FURTHER DOWN MEMORY LANE There was that time, in that world of yesteryear... Remember ... ... when you could get a hamburger, fries and a Coke for under 50 cents at the local diner? ... riding on an escalator for the first time? ... homemade ice cream on a Sunday afternoon? ... cold watermelon chilled overnight in the spring or in the milk cooler at the barn? ... playing under the trees with friends? ... when department stores advertised instore air conditioning at a time most people did not have air conditioning in their own homes? Are you, Still Young, Getting Older, Don't Tell Your Age or are you Older Than Dirt??? Take the test below and count the ones you can remember, to discover which age group you belong in. 1. Blackjack chewing gum 2. Wax Coke-shaped bottles with colored sugar water 3. Candy cigarettes 4. Soda pop machines that dispensed bottles 5. Coffee shops with table side jukeboxes 6. Home milk delivery in glass bottles with cardboard stoppers 7. Party lines 8. Newsreels before the movie 9. P.F. Flyers 10. Butch wax 11. Telephone numbers with a word prefix (Dunkirk 13811 or Skyline 53653) 12. Peashooters 13. Howdy Doody 14. 45 RPM records 15. S&H Green Stamps 16. Hi-fi's 17. Metal ice trays with levers 18. Mimeograph paper 19. Blue flashbulbs 20. Beanie and Cecil 21. Roller skate keys 22. Cork popguns 23. Drive-ins 24. Studebakers 25. Wringer washers If you remembered 0-5 = You're still young If you remembered 6-10 = You are getting older If you remembered 11-15 = Don't tell your age If you remembered 16-25 = You're older than dirt! It's memories like these, among others that, mundane to us are the "old stories" to our descendants. Keep your memories alive. One day your own recollections will be as important as the old hidden ones we search for now. SUGGESTED SITES: Genealogical Website Watchdog: <http://ancestordetective.com/watchdog.htm> - You don't want to miss this page. Get the lowdown on questionable material on the internet. A Guide to Donating Your Personal or Family Papers to a Repository: <http://www.archivists.org/catalog/donating-familyrecs.asp> - Don't know what to do with your research, documents, letters, diaries and pictures? According to this site, "When you donate your personal or family papers to a manuscript repository, your family history becomes a part of your community's collective memory." What more can I say? Local Times Around the World: <http://www.swissinfo.net/cgi/worldtime/> - Want to know what time it is anywhere in the world? Try here. It's family ... and that's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    04/07/2002 12:25:17
    1. [ATEN] COLLEEN'S APRIL CHALLENGE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. Hi all, :) It's said that "April showers bring May flowers." Well, ships and planes bring immigrants, no matter what month/year it is or what the weather was like. There's one thing to be said about humans ~ we're a mobile species. It doesn't matter what country they came from or what country they ended up in. It also doesn't matter what the reason for emigration was. Your April challenge is to find an immigrant or an immigrant family and post him/her/them to the list, whether it's your immigrant or not is irrelevant. As long as the person/family is not sitting in their country of birth during any census or a death, etc. ~ that's what we're after. Name ONLY the immigrant or immigrant family and tell where they came from and when. You can name the ancestors, but no descendants. And since two months were mentioned ('April showers/May flowers'), this challenge will involve April and May. The second half of this challenge will be disclosed of course, in May! :) But for April, you just might want to open a new folder labeled "April challenge" and keep all the challenge messages from April in it. I can give you an advance notice that you're going to be using them in May. Have fun! :) Colleen

    04/01/2002 01:13:54
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. Back in the good ol' days: the Easter parade 3. Did you know ...? 4. Suggested sites TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. BACK IN THE GOOD OL' DAYS: THE EASTER PARADE In your Easter bonnet, with all the frills upon it, You'll be the grandest lady in the Easter parade! It's a fact; it really used to happen. Years past, Easter wasn't just a religious holiday. Easter Sunday has traditionally been the day to wear our spring finery and participate in an annual procession of folks decked out in their own fanciest outfits. It was a parade of your very best, displaying your finest attire and perfect posture and manners for the whole world to see. Wherever you lived, you and your family strolled to church together for perusal by the elders and all attendees. Unless you were in a large city, it became in effect, a miniature Easter parade. We're talking about an annual spring rite ~ the Easter Passage ~ which dates back to the Civil War period and carried through into the mid-1960's. Up until then, wearing hats was in vogue. However, it was in the 30's that getting a new Easter bonnet was the rage. Irving Berlin celebrated this custom with his song, "Easter Parade," in 1933. Since hats are no longer as popular, getting just a new Easter outfit is more of the tradition today. The Easter parade still carries on, however. For today's Coffee, we return to sometime in the late 1950's/ early 1960's ... You can believe it ~ every mother with a young child overspent her six-month grocery budget to ensure that her children were decked out to the max on Easter day. For the next six months, the family ate hotdogs, Spam, and lots of tuna casseroles. Just to get a smile or the nod of approval from one or two of the older women seemed to make it all worth Momma's efforts. Now, years later, I know my mother wasn't alone in her endeavors. I liked dressing up and feeling pretty, and the week before Easter it was finally time to visit the local department store for the purchase of my outfit. Where I looked forward to the promise of new clothes, I'd soon realize that the choice of apparel wasn't really going to be mine. Momma, with me in tow, would enter the den of dresses. I would stand in front of the three-way mirror while some sales lady pulled and poked me, tied the sash too tight, and pinched my cheeks to redden them up. "Now isn't she adorable," she'd coo. Adorable, my foot. I was miserable. To me, the dresses were matronly and ugly. But the biggest humiliation was the hat that was supposed to be necessary to complete "the look," and perched itself upon my too-tightly curled hair from a fresh Toni perm. Still, Momma was determined to have her little darlings match every other little darling in church on Sunday. First one dress, then another. The dresses were always springlike with lace and large bows. Unfortunately, the starch in them was enough to rub your body raw wherever the dress happened to touch. Try these shoes... no, those. Finally the outfit was complete. With the dresses we received frilly socks, beautiful shoes, white gloves and purses, and Easter hats. Easter Sunday would dawn all clear and blue. The day started out fun after a night's visit from the Easter bunny who'd left us baskets full of chocolate bunnies, marshmallow chicks, jelly beans and colored eggs. The joyous hunt for eggs or jelly beans just added to the early morning excitement. All too soon it was time to dress for church and the parade of finery. Everything had been laid out the night before ~ the flared slip, the heavily starched dress, the frilly socks and shiny, white patent-leather shoes ~ Mary Janes, they were called ~ the white gloves were tucked into the pocket book, and the little white hat was there. Daddy would give me a dime to drop in the basket at the offering during service and I would tuck it into the small zipper section of the stiff Easter purse. The real treat was for Momma when she'd see us all dressed up. She'd done everything in her power to make the day and make us shine. My sister and I shone only because she made us. Little girls aren't always full of sugar and spice and everything nice ~ more often we are little devils in disguise. Momma managed to tame us once or twice a year ~ Easter being one of those times. For all those years, I recall discomfort and threats of dire dismay to any body part that didn't tow the line. I could be pinched upon a moment's notice so severely that I might die from shock and never utter a sound. Momma would have killed me if I had. Then came time for the pictures which were snapped by my dad ~ me and my sister standing behind the Easter baskets that, at any other time of the year, hid somewhere in the house until the next Easter Eve. There weren't many smiles from me back then ~ I wore braces on my teeth. If you are a male, you probably held the absolute conviction you looked so totally stupid in a suit and tie that if any of your friends saw you it was enough to end your social career at the tender age of 8. When I was little, church was fun, but it was also tedious. Sunday school was okay, but I always felt my sister and I were missing out on what was really going on in the adult's service. I found out later that, though the service was intended to be soothing and uplifting, I wasn't missing anything. It was always too long and I'd get squirmy. The thrill of dropping my dime in the collection basket was over too soon. The rest of the day was spent in jeans and sneakers, riding bikes and playing kick ball in the street. Today is Easter and somehow I managed to be ready for the grandeur, the display, the gifts, the family warmth and love, and that nod of approval that I'll be waiting to get. I'm no longer squirming in discomfort from my white, stiff dress. I'm my mother now, on the other side of the coin, and hoping that the day will end well. Back in the good ol' days, everyone dressed up on Easter; but today only about half of the people at church are dressed in their finery, and sometimes not even that many, anymore. For those women who still carry on the tradition ~ the work involved in shopping for clothes, debating the finer points of appropriate footwear and enduring a certain amount of complaining is worth it in the end. It's about staying connected to the past, and to your family in an attempt of linking the past with the present. For them, and others like them, those relationships are maintained, at least in part, through tradition and ritual, handed down from generation to generation. If what I went through as a child was in any small degree in comparison to my great-grandmothers, then I feel great empathy for them; for the rituals of the Easter parade bring me a greater awareness of yet another aspect of their own lives. On the Avenue, Fifth Avenue The photographers will snap us And you'll find that you're In the rotogravure. Oh, I could write a sonnet About your Easter bonnet And of the girl I'm taking To the Easter parade. DID YOU KNOW... ? ..... that in Bethlehem, Pa., for example, a trombone choir of the Moravian Church plays hymns throughout the city before dawn on Easter Sunday to call church members to a sunrise service in the old Moravian cemetery? At the cemetery, the trombones play a joyful chorus as the sun appears on the horizon. ..... that children in the United Kingdom, Germany, and some other countries play a game in which eggs are rolled against one another or down a hill? The egg that stays uncracked the longest wins. This dates back to 1878 when President Rutherford B. Hayes 1878, invited children to roll eggs on the White House lawn in Washington, D.C. ..... that Easter is expected to generate $1.82 billion in candy sales this year, and is second only to candy sales for Halloween, the biggest candy-selling occasion? ..... the Easter Bunny is not a modern invention? The symbol originated with the pagan festival of Eostre. The goddess, Eostre, was worshipped by the Anglo-Saxons through her earthly symbol, the rabbit. The first documented used of the bunny as a symbol of Eastr appears in Germany in the 1500's. ..... that the Germans brought the symbol of the Easter rabbit to America? It was widely ignored by other Christians until shortly after the Civil War. In fact, Easter itself was not widely celebrated in America until after that time. ..... that a unique Easter tradition founded primarily in England and Russia is the picking of pussy willows? As an ancient symbol that spring had finally arrived, it was viewed as good luck to be tapped on the shoulder by a branch of these soft blooms by a neighbor or loved one. SUGGESTED SITES: The People Spot <http://www.peoplespot.com/> - Track down old friends with this massive resource of people search engines. This site has just about every type of people search imaginable, including links to other people search websites. U.K. Family History Online <http://www.familyrecords.gov.uk/> - This site aims to give you easy access to information and links to the main UK family history sites on the web. U.S. Surname Distribution <http://www.hamrick.com/names/> - Find out how frequently you might find someone with your own surname, from the 1850s to 1990s. Family ... it's what we're all about. To you April babies - the cousins and I wish you a very happy and exciting year ahead. Happy Birthday! You are loved! I really enjoyed this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. Happy Easter to all! :) ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    03/30/2002 11:37:07
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. Know the genealogy of your county 3. Suggested sites 4. Handy tips TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. KNOW THE GENEALOGY OF YOUR COUNTY It happens to all of us at one time or another ... that ancestor refuses to turn up. You have searched the county records until you believe you know them better than your own child! Still, there is nothing to support the claims that your relative was born, resided or died there. Actually, there probably is. You most likely haven't been looking in the right places. If you've been spinning your wheels in the same county all these years and *STILL* haven't gotten anywhere, you seriously want to read this lesson: a.* You need the will of an ancestor who died in Mills Landing, New York, but darned if you can find any kind of map that shows you just where it's located in the state! b.* Grandma Tillie, bless her heart, wrote in her bible that she'd been born in Isle Royal County, Michigan in 1898. But you can't even find the county on a Michigan map! c.* Your ancestor died in Montgomery County, North Carolina in 1722. You need his will, but can't find the record. You may have spent veritable YEARS running around the county without coming up with a single clue. It's time to back up, regroup, and do a genealogy of the county your working in. What? Yes, I mean a county genealogy. With the exception of original counties, every county had its beginnings from somewhere. Yours is no exception. County and town borders were changing all the time during the formations of our states, and both usually went through several area changes before reaching stable, modern bounds. Boundary changes will stop you cold in your tracks if you aren't aware of them. Rather than try to explain this section of genealogical study, it's easier if I just give you some examples. Read the following of Schuyler County, New York: In 1788 while part of Montgomery County, Chemung Town (now the eastern part of Chemung County) was erected. From Montgomery County came Tioga County on 16 February 1791. Tioga County embraced all of Broome and Chemung Counties, parts of Chenango and Schuyler Counties, and all of present-day Tioga County. The following year, on April 10, 1792, Newton (renamed Elmira in 1808) was organized out of Chemung Town. From Newtown sprang, on March 15, 1798, Catherine's Town (later called Catherine). Catharine's Town remained a part of Tioga County until March 20, 1836 when Chemung County was erected from Tioga. On June 7, 1836, the Village of Havana (renamed Montour Falls) was created. In 1854, Schuyler County organized with Havana a town in her district. If your ancestor was born in Schuyler County, New York in 1835, you'll have to get the birth record from Tioga County, New York since Schuyler County wasn't organized until 1854. If that same grandparent married in Schuyler County in 1852, you'll have to get the marriage record from Chemung County. a.* Over a period of forty years, one ancestor, although still residing in the same house, shows in two different towns and and two different counties! At the time New York State was still forming. Havana, also called Mill's Landing, was originally part of Catharine's Town, which formed in 1798. The town changed its name to Havana in 1829. The Village of Havana was incorporate in 1836, the same year Chemung became a separate county from Tioga. Havana changes its name to Montour Falls in 1860, six years after the area broke off and became a part of Schuyler County along with districts from two other counties. ~~ one ancestor, one home, two towns, two counties. b.* If you're searching in Michigan for Isle Royal County, you've obviously figured out it just isn't there. However, at one time, it was there! A little research will tell you that Isle Royal County, Michigan was created in 1875, but it disorganized in 1897. In 1885 it was attached 1885 to Houghton County, and in 1897 to Keweenaw where the records are now held. Go look for Grandma Tillie in the Keweenaw County records. :) c.* Finding a will in Montgomery County dated 1722 just isn't going to happen. You see, Montgomery County, North Carolina wasn't created until 1779 from a portion of Anson County. Anson was created in 1750 from Bladen, which came out of New Hanover and Bath Counties in 1734. New Hanover was created in 1729 from Craven County, which organized in 1712 as a precinct of Bath County. Bath County was created in 1696 and discontinued in 1739. Your best bet then, is to head for Craven County's records and see if they hold that will. However, lucky you! The North Carolina State Archives holds all the county records useful for genealogical research up to about 1910. Not all of are lucky enough to research in the grand state of North Carolina, though; so we needed this little exercise. In 1850, any marriage for a couple in the town of Linkville, Linn County, Oregon would have been recorded in Albany, the county seat. However, by 1860 new counties had formed in Oregon. All marriages performed in Linkville, now in Wasco County, were recorded in The Dalles. Next, in 1870, a marriage performed in Linkville was recorded in Jacksonville, the county seat of Jackson County (but later the county seat was moved to Medford). To confuse a researcher even more, in 1880 a marriage performed in Linkville was recorded in Lakeview, the county seat of Lake County. It wasn't until 1890, when for the first time, a marriage performed in Linkville was recorded in the same town, since Linkville became the county seat of Klamath County. But then the name Linkville was changed to Klamath Falls. The boundaries of Klamath County have not changed since 1890. Of course, the town of Linkville never moved. As the settlement of Oregon took place, new counties were created, and earlier county boundaries were changed, placing the town of Linkville-Klamath Falls in five different counties from 1850 through 1890. Therefore, all county records such as deeds, probates, marriages, etc., for a family that lived in Linkville, Oregon are spread across the state and stored today in five different county courthouses. A little mention in closing the subject ~ When recording the information, be sure to record the place or locality as it was at the time of the event. This will direct you to the correct courthouse which may hold documentary evidence of your ancestor's activities. Three books are on the market that can help you with county boundary changes: ** Dollarhide, William and William Thorndale. "Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920." Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company. 1987. ** Eichholz, Alice, editor. "Ancestry's Red Book: American State, County & Town Sources." Salt Lake City: Ancestry Publishing, Inc. 1989. ** Everton, Lee, editor. The Handybook for Genealogists. Logan UT: Everton Publishing Company. 9th Edition. SUGGESTED SITES Following on the subject of today's topic, here are a few suggested sites that will help *some* of you rather than most. A search at <http://www.google.com> for "county boundary changes" will bring up 636 sites you can look at. Early Europeans: County Formation New York 1683-1915 <http://www.marist.edu/summerscholars/97/animated.htm> showing an animated map of New York's counties in the 232 years. Formation of North Carolina Counties <http://www.martygrant.com/gen/refs/nccounty.htm>. This North Carolina site has all its county information laid out for you. Information about Arkansas Counties: <http://www.arkansasresearch.com/colist.html>. This Arkansas site has all its county information laid out for you, right here! ORGenWeb: Maps Showing County Boundary Changes <http://www.rootsweb.com/~ordougla/ctychngs.htm> for Oregon Territory to Oregon State with 36 counties. Covers a span of 47 years. HANDY TIPS: ** If you receive documents on your ancestors and the print is faded, go and buy a black light bulb and put the bulb behind the paper you want to read. ** When working on gathering information, use a three ring binder with a zipper and plastic pages. Doing so, you can put in a photo or document, zip it up, and leave it for a week. When you come back to it the papers are all together. This will help keep you from setting something aside and forgetting where you put it. The plastic pages allow you to slide notes in in order. It's family ... and that's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    03/23/2002 08:01:46
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. Faith and begorrah, it's St. Patrick's Day! 3. Did you know...? 4. Were you aware...? TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. FAITH AND BEGORRAH, IT'S ST. PATRICK'S DAY! Green... pending the arrival of spring and a reprieve from the blankets of snow and the freezing arctic blasts of winter. Green serves as a symbol of life and renewal, spiritual and physical, marked the world over through a variety of religious holidays and celebrations to welcome the annual rebirth of the earth leading all life into spring blossoms and the Easter season. Green... of all the days cast in hues of green, perhaps none is more associated with the color than St. Patrick's Day ... the color of spring ... Ireland ... the shamrock. On this day, it seems there's a wee bit o' the Irish in most of us. Parties, get-togethers, and family dinners with corned beef and cabbage, and traditional Irish and Irish-American dishes. Meals built around a theme of the color green are an American custom. Spinach, asparagus, any leafy greens, potatoes or rice with parsley, and a minty green dessert. And, always present on this day (in America, at least) is the green beer. Green... the color of today. It's because of just one man that it all started.... The Roman Empire had begun to break up, and Europe was about to enter the Dark Ages. Rome fell to barbarian invaders in 410. Within ten years of that time, the Roman forces began to leave Britain to return to Rome to defend positions back home. Life, once so orderly and predictable under Roman domination, now became chaotic and uncertain. Patrick entered the world of that time. No one is certain when or where he was born, but tradition has the patron saint of Ireland born about 385 A.D. in Bannavem Taburniæ, Roman Britain, near Dumbarton just northwest of Glasgow, in Scotland. For sure he was born about the end of the 4th century. His birth name was Magonus Sucatus, his given name Maewyn, and he was called Patricius (or Patrick) after he became a priest. Magonus (later, Patrick) was the son of noble Roman parents, Calpurnius and his wife, Conchessa. Calpurnius was a deacon, civil magistrate and tax collector in charge of the colonies. His grandfather was a priest. With no Roman army to protect them, Magonus and his town were unprepared for attack. The Irish warriors, wearing helmets and armed with spears, descended on the area. At the age of sixteen, Magonus was taken prisoner by a group of Irish raiders who were attacking his family's estate. They transported him to Ireland where he was sold into slavery and spent six years in captivity. During this time in slavery, he worked as a shepherd, spending much of the time outdoors and away from people. Despite his religious upbringing, at the time of his capture, Magonus had considered himself a pagan ~ and Ireland was a land of Druids and pagans. Lonely and afraid, however, he turned to religion for solace, becoming a devout Christian. After six years of being beaten and treated poorly, he escaped to Gaul (present day France). At some point Patrick returned to his family in Britain, then studied at the monastery of Lerins from 412 to 415. Following that, he spent more than fifteen years studing religion under St. Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre and was ordained about 417. St. Germanus consecrated Patrick, known for his compassion for suffering persons and for his endless zeal, as bishop about 432. That same year Patrick was sent to Ireland with a dual mission ~ to minister to Christians already living in Ireland and to convert more of the Irish pagans ~ the very people who had enslaved him. Familiar with the Irish language and culture, Patrick chose to incorporate traditional ritual into his lessons of Christianity instead of attempting to eradicate native Irish beliefs. For instance, he used bonfires to celebrate Easter since the Irish were used to honoring their gods with fire. He also superimposed a sun, a powerful Irish symbol, onto the Christian cross to create what is now called a Celtic cross, so that veneration of the symbol would seem more natural to the Irish. His methods proved quite successful at winning over the converts and this fact upset the Celtic Druids, his heaviest opposition. The druids practiced magic, were skilled in secular learning (especially law and history) and advised Irish kings. Biographies of the saint are replete with stories of druids who wished to "kill holy Patrick." He was arrested several times, but always escaped. Patrick traveled throughout Ireland, establishing monasteries across the country. He also set up schools and churches which would aid him in his conversion of the Irish country to Christianity. Not surprising, his own experience in captivity left Patrick with a virulent hatred of the institution of slavery, and he would later become the first human being in the history of the world to speak out unequivocally against it. He spent 29 years teaching Christianity to the Irish in an effort to convert the pagans. By the time of his death, or shortly thereafter, the Irish had stopped the slave trade and ceased the practice of human sacrifice. According to the Irish annals, Patrick died in 463, in his seventies. But we do not know for sure where, or how he died. Monasteries at Armagh, Downpatrick, and Saul have all claimed his remains. The site with the strongest claim is Down Cathedral, where a large slab of rock on which the word Patric is inscribed protects "the grave" of St. Patrick. Patrick isn't really a Saint with a capital S, having never been officially canonized by Rome. For most of Christianity’s first 1,000 years, canonizations were done on the local level. Relatively soon after very holy people died, the regional Church affirmed that they could be liturgically celebrated as saints. That was the case with St. Patrick. Homage was being paid to him as Ireland's saint as early as the eighth century AD. At this time Patrick's status of national apostle was made independently of Rome; he was claimed locally as a saint before the practice of canonisation was introduced by the Vatican. When the Roman Catholic Church determined and established the first list of Saints, Patrick was already on it. And so it was that a young Briton named Magonus/Patricius died an Irishman named Patrick. And neither Ireland nor Christianity, nor the world was ever quite the same. It took just one man... DID YOU KNOW...? ** That St. Patrick's Day has been observed in the United States since 1737 when Boston publicly celebrated the day for the first time? ** The first St. Patrick's Day parade took place not in Ireland, but in the United States. Irish soldiers serving in the English military marched through New York City on March 17, 1762. ** In Ireland, there were no parades, no parties, no drinking until November 1995 when the Government of Ireland established the St. Patrick's Festival? St. Patrick's Day is now a legal holiday in Ireland with schools, post offices, and banks closed. ** The largest St. Patrick's Day parade takes place each year in New York City? In honor of the day, the center stripe down Fifth Avenue is painted green. ** In Chicago, which boasts the nation's largest population of Irish descent, the Chicago River is dyed green on St. Patrick's Day? ** That corned beef and cabbage is NOT an Irish dish? Corned beef and cabbage was actually created by immigrants in New England. In Ireland it is called bacon and cabbage and is a salted joint of bacon, where in the States it has become a brisket of beef marinated in brine and seasoned. In the end both taste very similar even though one is beef and the other pork. Both are served with boiled cabbage, carrots and potatoes. ** Legend has it that St. Patrick used the shamrock in the fifth century when he introduced Christianity to Ireland to symbolize the divine nature of the trinity and show how separate elements of the same entity could all exist? His followers adopted the custom of wearing a shamrock on his feast day. ** The legend of St. Patrick driving the snakes from Ireland is untrue? Patrick couldn't have driven the snakes out of Ireland because there were never any snakes there to begin with. The druids were called "serpents" for their occult knowledge, and Patrick broke their power. WERE YOU AWARE....? That you have two families to consider when you think of your parents? Four families are involved with your grandparents. Going back just five generations gives you 32 families to research. Continue multiplying, go back 20 generations and you'll be studying your 1,048,576 family surnames in your spare time. That's why a genealogist's work is never done! That's also why almost everyone you've ever met is a relative. So, rent a really big site for your next reunion! And, be careful next time you say, "I'm just buying presents for the family." :) It is family ... and that's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. Happy and safe St. Patrick's Day! :) ) May you always have... ( Walls for the winds. ) A roof for the rain. _.-~~-. Tea beside the fire. (@\'--'/. Colleen Laughter to cheer you. ('``.__.'`) Those you love near you. `..____.' And all your heart may desire.

    03/16/2002 08:27:48
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. A highly recommended site 3. Counting the costs TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. A HIGHLY RECOMMENDED SITE: Support our troops overseas <http://anyservicemember.navy.mil/> ~ With the war against terrorism underway and our men overseas once more, why not show your support and appreciation, and help boost our troops' morale? At this site you can drop a service member of any branch of service a quick note of thanks. My own husband is a soldier; need I say more? :) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I don't particularly like the Coffee I wrote this past week and have elected to hold it back and work on it some more. Today's Coffee highlight was sent to me by a member of one of my lists. (Thanks, Barbara!) :) She didn't write it, nor does she know who did. I would love to give credit to the author and if you happen to know who it is, please let me know and I'll be very happy to mention his/her name in the next Coffee. COUNTING THE COST The government recently calculated the cost of raising a child from birth to 18 and came up with $160,140 for a middle income family. Talk about sticker shock!? That doesn't even touch college tuition. For those with kids, that figure leads to wild fantasies about all the money we could have banked if not for (insert your child's name here). For others, that number might confirm the decision to remain childless. But $160,140 isn't so bad if you break it down. It translates into $8,896.66 a year, $741.38 a month, or $171.08 a week. That's a mere $24.44 a day! Just over a dollar an hour. Still, you might think the best financial advice says don't have children if you want to be "rich." It is just the opposite. What do your get for your $160,140? * Naming rights. First, middle, and last! * Glimpses of God every day. * Giggles under the covers every night. * More love than your heart can hold. * Butterfly kisses and Velcro hugs. * Endless wonder over rocks, ants, clouds, and warm cookies. * A hand to hold, usually covered with jam. * A partner for blowing bubbles, flying kites, building sandcastles, and skipping down the sidewalk in the pouring rain. * Someone to laugh yourself silly with no matter what the boss said or how your stocks performed that day. For $160,140, you never have to grow up. You get to finger-paint, carve pumpkins, play hide-and-seek, catch lightning bugs, and never stop believing in Santa Claus. You have an excuse to keep reading the Adventures of Piglet and Pooh, watching Saturday morning cartoons, going to Disney movies, and wishing on stars. You get to frame rainbows, hearts, and flowers under refrigerator magnets and collect spray painted noodle wreaths for Christmas, hand prints set in clay for Mother's Day, and cards with backward letters for Father's Day. For $160,140, there is no greater bang for your buck. You get to be a hero just for retrieving a Frisbee off the garage roof, taking the training wheels off the bike, removing a splinter, filling the wading pool, coaxing a wad of gum out of bangs, and coaching a baseball team that never wins but always gets treated to ice cream regardless. You get a front row seat to history to witness the first step, first word, first bra, first date, and first time behind the wheel. You get to be immortal. You get another branch added to your family tree, and if you're lucky, a long list of limbs in your obituary called grandchildren. You get education in psychology, nursing, criminal justice, and communications that no college can match. In the eyes of a child, you rank right up there with God. You have all the power to heal a boo-boo, scare away the monsters under the bed, patch a broken heart, police a slumber party, ground them forever, and love them without limits, so one day they will, like you, love without counting the cost. After all, it's family... and that's what we're all about. I so enjoyed spending this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    03/10/2002 12:54:47
    1. [ATEN] SUNDAY MORNING COFFEE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. ) ( ( ) Good Morning Family! ( \ .-.,--^--. ( Come on in. . . \* ) \\|`----'| - The coffee pot's on. . . .=|=. \| |// ...and we even have decaf, |~'~| | |/ tea, and hot chocolate! | | \ / _|___|_ ------ (_______) Today's topics include: 1. Welcome to new cousins 2. The Lost TO OUR NEWEST COUSINS ~~ On behalf of the entire family, I'd like to extend a most hearty welcome to those cousins who came into the family fold this past week. We are very glad to have you with us and hope you'll stay and remain a part of our online family. As soon as you're comfortable with us and the list, please send in your list-surname lines so we can all see how we're related to you. We do not have a fancy format for sending in records or queries to the list. Post as many as you wish! If the data has anything to do with our list-surname ancestors that might help someone, please feel free to post it. Every scrap of information is appreciated. You're welcome to share this Coffee with your genealogy friends and relatives. If they are not members of our online family and would like to begin receiving the Coffee, they are now able to. Simply have them send a blank email to <[email protected]>. THE LOST Whoosshhhh!! She looked around. Where was she? People surrounded her for what seemed like miles and miles! Where in the world had they all come from? One minute she was alone, the next she was sitting amidst this huge crowd! There was no sky; there was no earth. What kept this mass of people so closely grouped together? ...and the DUST! Whew! Between that and the overbearing pressure of the crowd, she felt as though she could hardly breath! Then she saw them, her family. There were her parents and all eleven siblings! Why, that's her as a young girl and there's her long-dead sister, a child again! Over there were her husband and eight children! She looked around a little more and found a few of her aunts, uncles and even some cousins! Everyone seemed to be there ~ a REUNION! Oh, yes! But there were also many, many people she didn't know. "Let's think on the positive side of things, though," she thought. Just look at everyone she DID recognize! Look at her dad! He's so proud of his family! You can see his pride by the way he stands, his shoulders thrown back. The long, hard years of farming show in his weathered face. Her mother looks delicate in the face; those long skirts covering her frailness. She won't live much longer... the doctor said she shouldn't have had so many children. She noticed her two grandfathers by the oxen-pulled wagon. Both her grandmothers and both families' children were in it. She saw her father as a boy! "Everyone is on their way to a Fourth of July community picnic," he'd once told her. To look at them their clothes weren't the finest ~ rather plain actually. One grandfather wears a beaten up hat as proudly as though it were a gentleman's derby. And there!... there are six of her great-grandparents! Those people pioneered this area. Two pairs of those grandparents made their way over to America ~ one from Germany, the other from Ireland. Best friends, they are and what a combination of personalities they make. One of the great-grandmothers was even a handmaiden to the queen herself before she got married! But they all died, the last one 17 years ago, wasn't it? How could they be here now? And just in front of her ... her mother had once told her they were her great-great grandparents from the old country! They look a little smudged. How in the world could they be here in this crowd? They look like they might be awfully warm in those heavy clothes. Her first impressions of them hadn't changed ~ he still looked friendly; she still looked strict! What's going on? she wondered. See those two women over there? One is a cousin to her, the other just an acquaintance. The two young women are best friends, so close you'd think they were sisters. They have their arms wrapped around each other. They once vied for the attentions of a young man, but she doesn't see him in the crowd. Did either of them marry that man? She looked at the two women more closely. Why does her cousin's friend have that scar across her face? Her friend didn't have that before ...at least, it looks like a scar. Some of them had names, some didn't. She was one who didn't. Some were in groups of full families, while others just one or several people. Some were dressed in their Sunday best; others in worn and ragged clothing used for working. The styles of dress of the children was as mixed as the adults they co-mingled with. The old, old gowns of some of the the women ... how could this be? How could these people who had already passed on be here with all these younger people today? What kind of a reunion is this? Whooshhhh! She felt the cool air waft around her. It wasn't as crowded anymore; the dust was still in the air but it wasn't as choking. Where'd everyone go? She felt as though she was being looked at. "This one doesn't have a name, either." Whooshhh! Back into the crowd again! This is crazy! Wait! Who is that? That woman who is standing with her hand on the man's shoulder as he sits? Who IS that??? Her sister! It's her sister! It can't be. She died when a horse pulling a wagon ran over her 9 years ago! What a beautiful woman she was before she died. But she and her husband look so faded now... There wasn't a mirror to look in, but she knew the dress she was wearing wasn't the one she had on earlier today. As a matter of fact, she hadn't worn this dress since she was 18! Dateline 2002: Antique Store, Any City, Any Country "These old pictures, just look at all of them ~ tintypes, sepia-tones ~ all kinds! They sure are dusty! Some of them are in pretty bad shape, too." "I know, it's such a pity that a lot of them don't have names. They're from quite a few old estates. We just took all the pictures and stuck them in that box to get them out of the way. It's rare that anyone looks at them, but we have an occasional customer who looks through them. If we get too many more pictures though, we'll probably have to throw these out to make more room. We'll get rid of those unmarked ones first." FINIS And so it goes, a dusty box of old pictures sits in yet another out of the way place in one of the world's antique shops (or maybe even a flea market or garage sale). Some of the photographs may be marked with names, dates, places, and/or relationships; many aren't. Certainly, all of the people in the box had life stories, most of which will never be known to future generations. If you haven't figured it out yet, "she" was one of the unmarked pictures in the box ~ one of the lost souls. I wonder how many of us will become one of the lost souls in yet another dusty box of unmarked, unwanted, uncared-for photographic treasures. How many of our descendants will end up saying, "I haven't the slightest idea who s/he is but s/he sure looks familiar!" Is that really what you want, gentle reader? Are your pictures labeled? Will your grandparents, parents, sister, even YOU be known to your descendants 3-4 generations from now? Obviously this was a work of fictional fantasy, for we KNOW that souls aren't really attached to pictures ...are they? It's family ... and that's what we're all about. To you March babies - the cousins and I wish you a very happy and exciting year ahead. Happy Birthday! You are loved! I really enjoyed this time with you today. Thank you for sharing it with me. I wish each of you a week filled with health, productivity, fun, and above all, filled with love and inner peace. ) ( ) _.-~~-. (@\'--'/. Colleen ('``.__.'`) `..____.'

    03/02/2002 11:51:15
    1. [ATEN] COLLEEN'S MARCH CHALLENGE
    2. Colleen Pustola
    3. Hi family, Most of us have collected information on people we thought were (or we thought might turn out to be) related to us, only to find out they weren't. So, we stuffed the information in a binder, or in a box under the bed, or a file in or desk and the data became a hidden record. Just because these people aren't yours doesn't mean they don't belong to another cousin, though. YOUR CHALLENGE: Post a "These Aren't Mine" message telling us about the person, people, or family you found. Please be sure to tell us the dates and places of these people and if possible, list your source. One family per message, please. I wish you all a SUPER, SUNNY Saturday! :) Colleen

    03/02/2002 01:40:35
    1. [ATEN] remove
    2. remove

    02/24/2002 03:17:07